Columbus' Mutinous Crew

Columbus' Mutinous Crew



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Columbus Crew SC: A look back at the team's history

Columbus Crew SC is Columbus' Major League Soccer franchise. The team is one of the 10 charter members of Major League Soccer.

But now it's possible that the team will move to Austin. (See what fans are saying about the news.)

Here is a look back at the team's history here in Columbus:

June 15, 1994: The city of Columbus is awarded one of the 10 inaugural clubs in Major League Soccer (MLS). The Dispatch reports the next day that the new team could be named "Eclipse."

June 8, 1995: Lamar Hunt and Family are announced as the investor-operators of the Columbus Major League Soccer Team.

Oct. 17, 1995: Columbus Mayor Greg Lashutka unveils Team Columbus' name, logo, uniform, and colors. Columbus resident Luis Orozco was the only entrant in a month long contest to suggest that the team be named "The Columbus Crew."

Feb. 6, 1996: Major League Soccer conducts its first player draft, holding the first eight rounds at the Hotel Inter-Continental in New York City. Brian McBride, a two-time All-American from St. Louis, is the first overall player selected by Columbus.

April 13, 1996: The Crew's inaugural game against D.C. United results in a 4-0 Crew victory in front of a crowd of 25,266.

Aug. 2, 1996: With The Crew in fifth-place and a 6-16 record, Head Coach Timo Liekoski resigns. Assistant coach Tom Fitzgerald is immediately named head coach on an interim basis.

Sept. 15, 1996: The Crew sets the season record for attendance in Columbus when 31,550 fans come out to see The Crew defeat the MetroStars 2-0 in the last regular season home game of the inaugural year.

Sept. 25, 1996: The Crew makes its first-ever playoff appearance, losing at home, 2-0 to Tampa Bay.

Oct. 24, 1996: The Crew officially removes the interim title from Tom Fitzgerald's name and names him head coach after he led the team to a 9-1 run at the end of the season and into the playoffs.

Oct. 8, 1997: Columbus wins its first playoff series, beating Tampa Bay 2-0 to win the series two games to none and advance to its first Eastern Conference Finals Series.

May 19, 1998: The Crew announces plans for the construction of the country's first-ever soccer-specific stadium, on the grounds of the Ohio Expo Center. The 25-year lease paves the way for construction of a 22,500 seat stadium. NBBJ is the architect on the project.

Aug. 14, 1998: The Crew break ground on a 22,500 seat soccer-specific stadium. MLS Commissioner Doug Logan announces that the new stadium will host the MLS All-Star Game in 2000 and the 2001 MLS Cup.

Oct. 18, 1998: In the last MLS game ever played at Ohio Stadium, The Crew leave "The Shoe" with a 4-2 playoff win over D.C., snapping United's MLS record 13-game playoff win streak. The Crew end the Ohio Stadium era with an all-time home record of 33-20.

May 15, 1999: The Crew opens Columbus Crew Stadium, the first stadium built specifically for soccer in the United States. The Crew down the New England Revolution 2-0 before a sold-out crowd of 24,741.

July 29, 2000: A standing-room-only crowd of 23,495 is on hand as Columbus Crew Stadium plays host to the 2000 MLS All-Star Game. Mike Clark, Brian McBride, and Dante Washington all represent the hometown Crew.

May 17, 2001: Tom Fitzgerald is dismissed as Crew head coach and replaced on an interim basis by his top assistant Greg Andrulis, who is later given the job.

June 21, 2004: Crew specialty license plates, featuring the club's logo, are introduced by the Ohio Bureau of Motor Vehicles.

Nov. 12, 2004: Greg Andrulis is named MLS Coach of the Year, making him the first Crew coach so honored, and Robin Fraser is named MLS Defender of the Year.

July 12, 2005: Head coach Greg Andrulis is relieved of his duties. Assistant coach Robert Warzycha is named interim head coach.

Oct. 20, 2005: Sigi Schmid is named the fifth head coach in Crew history. Interim head coach Robert Warzycha accepts an offer to remain as Schmid's top assistant.

Dec. 14, 2006: Crew Founder Lamar Hunt, one of the most renowned pioneers in American sports history, dies following an eight-year battle with prostate cancer.

Nov. 13, 2008: The Columbus Crew defeats the Chicago Fire 2-1, winning the team the Eastern Conference title for the first time in its 13-year history and earning the team's first trip to the MLS Cup final.

Nov. 20, 2008: Guillermo Barros Schelotto is named the MVP of Major League Soccer, becoming the first Crew player to win the award.

Nov. 23, 2008: The Columbus Crew win the MLS Cup with a 3-1 victory over the New York Red Bulls. It is the team's first title in its 13-year history.

Dec. 9, 2008: The Columbus Crew confirms in a statement that coach Sigi Schmid will not return to the team next season.

Dec. 12, 2008: Major League Soccer announces that the Seattle Sounders paid the Columbus Crew an undisclosed amount of league allocation money and cash in exchange for the Crew's release of former coach Sigi Schmid from the residual obligations of his expired contract. The league found no evidence of tampering on Seattle's part, but the Sounders' payment to the Crew was made in exchange for the Crew's agreement to not enforce a noncompete clause in Schmid's contract.

Dec. 22, 2008: Robert Warzycha is named coach of the Crew after 13 seasons as a player and assistant coach.

July 13, 2009: The Crew visits the White House for a congratulatory meeting with President Barack Obama.

June 2, 2010: The Dispatch reports that Texas-based Hunt Sports Group, the Crew's investor-operator, has hired the Cleveland-based investment bank Western Reserve Partners to sell a minority ownership stake in the team to one or more local investors. The Hunt family will continue to own a majority share of the team and 11-year-old Columbus Crew Stadium.

July 30, 2013: Precourt Sports Ventures purchases the Crew from Hunt Sports Group. Columbus Mayor Michael B. Coleman and Hunt Sports Group Chairman Clark Hunt say a key point in the sale was that the Crew remain in Columbus -- although the contract does not contain language tying the team to the city.

Nov. 6, 2013: Crew investor-operator Anthony Precourt announces the hiring of former U.S. international player Gregg Berhalter as the seventh coach in Crew history.

Oct. 8, 2014: The Crew unveils their first change to the club's name, Columbus Crew SC, and logo since Major League Soccer's inaugural season in 1996. The new visual identity features a circular logo however, the new logo will not appear on jerseys until next season, when all-new uniforms will be revealed.

Oct. 26, 2014: The Columbus Crew SC ends its regular season with a 2-1 win over the Philadelphia Union. The Crew advances to the Major League Soccer's playoffs for the first time in three years.

Nov. 9, 2014: The team is eliminated from its first playoff appearance in three years in the Major League Soccer Eastern Conference semifinals after a 3-1 loss to New England.

March 3, 2015: The team announces its first stadium-naming rights partner, Mapfre (pronounced MAH-fray) Insurance and the change of the stadium name from "Crew Stadium" to "Mapfre Stadium."

Nov. 29, 2015: Columbus Crew SC wins the Eastern Conference trophy and will play host to the MLS Cup final against the Portland Timbers Dec. 6 in Mapfre Stadium.

Dec. 6, 2015: Columbus Crew SC is denied its title by the Portland Timbers, losing to the Timbers 2-1 in front of a standing-room crowd of 21,747 at the MLS Cup championship match at Mapfre Stadium.

May 12, 2016: The Crew makes the biggest trade in team history this morning, sending unsettled star striker Kei Kamara to the New England Revolution in exchange for a lengthy list of resources in return.

Feb. 24, 2017: The Crew announces Acura as its jersey partner, kicking off a three-year agreement. Financial terms are not disclosed, but Andy Loughnane, president of business operations for the team, says the deal represents the largest annual commercial deal in club history. Acura's logo and name will appear on the front of all Crew uniforms, replacing Barbasol, which for five years served as the team's uniform sponsor.


Sources: Economy

Economic Impact on the World Economy

  1. Nunn, Nathan, and Nancy Qian. “The Columbian exchange: A history of disease, food, and ideas.” The Journal of Economic Perspectives2 (2010): 163-188.

“First, it introduced previously unknown species to the Old World. Many of these species—like potatoes, sweet potatoes, maize, and cassava (also known as manioc)—resulted in caloric and nutritional improvements over previously existing staples. Second, the discovery of the Americas provided the Old World with vast quantities of relatively unpopulated land well suited for the cultivation of certain crops that were in high demand in Old World markets. “

After Columbus accidentally introduced the world to the untapped resources and overall opportunity of the Americas and western hemisphere in general, the overall world economy grew and become stronger. Columbus’s heroic journey to find new resources opened the door to strengthening international relationships and broadening trade to a global level.

  1. Findlay, Ronalad, and Kevin O’Rourke. “Mr. Columbus’s Economic Bombshell.” BBC Historyd.: 41-43. BBC History. May 2006. Web. 04 Apr. 2017. <http://www.tcd.ie/Economics/staff/orourkek/BBC%20History.pdf>.

From 1500 to 1800, there was a steadily increasing silver flow from Latin America to not only Europe, where it led to widespread price inflation, but to Asia as well, either directly (via the Philippines) or indirectly (via Europe, which used the silver to pay for imports of Chinese goods such as silk and ceramics, Indian cotton textiles and Indonesian spices).

The journey made by Columbus jump started the entire world economy and further encouraged other governments and economies to become interested in the resources available in America. This was the start of today’s current large scale globalization.

“Both European trade and population expanded considerably in the countries after Columbus sailed, and the governments rose that could to the resources of their people and use them to pursue national goals. Among t hose goals were new sources of food and trade goods to enhance their countries’ wealth.”

Although Columbus’s encounter with the natives ended in violence and the destruction of almost all of the native people, it too resulted in a growing interest in America, thus in the long time increasing the population as more and more people settled there.


Puck Lithograph of "Columbus Cleveland and His Mutinous Crew" - Grover Cleveland As Christopher Columbus - Map of Route to Reform - Political Satire

Title: Puck Lithograph of "Columbus Cleveland and .

Publisher: Keppler & Schwarzmann

Publication Date: 1885

Binding: No Binding

Book Condition: Good

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Photo, Print, Drawing Columbus Cleveland and his mutinous crew - "This ship shall not turn back!" / Gillam. digital file from original print

For guidance about compiling full citations consult Citing Primary Sources.

  • Rights Advisory: No known restrictions on publication.
  • Reproduction Number: LC-DIG-ppmsca-28141 (digital file from original print)
  • Call Number: Illus. in AP101.P7 1885 (Case X) [P&P]
  • Access Advisory: ---

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American Heritage Album CD

This CD album includes biographies from Columbus to the Wright brothers, the Pilgrims, Benjamin Franklin, Lincoln, Booker T. Washington, Thomas Edison, Alexander Graham Bell, Charles Lindbergh, Edward Bok, Dr. Walter Reed, Glenn Cunningham and Marty Marion. Stories are brought to life through narration, voice actors, sound effects, and music. The perfect teaching tool! Use during road trips and running errands in the car. (Stories: H-1 through H-12) Listening time: 12 hours!

-Beyond the Horizon: Columbus plans for voyage

-The Disappearing Light: Hardships and perils of Columbus

-Mutiny of Alonzo: Columbus faces a mutinous crew

-Columbus in Chains: Columbus’ glory fades

-Persecuted and Betrayed: Early Pilgrims

-The First Thanksgiving: The Pilgrims in Plymouth

-The Spirit of the Stars and Stripes: Story of the US Flag

-The Runaway Boy: Story of Benjamin Franklin

-America’s Arch Hero Makes a Speech: Abraham Lincoln at Gettysburg

-Billy Scott Faces the Firing Squad: A Lincoln story

-Yellow Jack, The Giant Killer of Men: Dr. W. Reed discovers cause of Yellow Fever

-Fury in Petticoats: One of America's first woman lawyers

-Yankee Woman: Booker T. Washington, Part 1

-Yankee Woman: Booker T. Washington, Part 2

-Thomas Edison: Tribute to Edison's Mother

-The Edward Bok Story: Famous American

-Alexander Graham Bell: Invention of Telephone, Part 1

-Alexander Graham Bell: Invention of Telephone, Part 2

-Bicycles and Kites: Story of Wright Brothers, Part 1

-Partners in Flight: Story of Wright Brothers, Part 2

-A Man Without a Country: Story of Philip Nolan

-The Spirit of St. Louis: Charles A. Lindbergh Crosses the Atlantic

-Little Bad Legs: The Glenn Cunningham Story

-The Ugly Duckling of Baseball: Story of Shortshop, Marty Marion

  • ISBN: ALB6EC
  • Pages: 12 CDs
  • Publication Date:
  • Version:
  • Media: CD

Columbus Crew timeline: A look back at the club's history

June 8, 1995: Lamar Hunt and Family are announced as the investor-operators of the Columbus Major League Soccer Team.

Oct. 17, 1995: Columbus Mayor Greg Lashutka unveils Team Columbus&rsquo name, logo, uniform, and colors. Columbus resident Luis Orozco was the only entrant in a month long contest to suggest that the team be named &ldquoThe Columbus Crew.&rdquo

Feb. 6, 1996: Major League Soccer conducts its first player draft, holding the first eight rounds at the Hotel Inter-Continental in New York City. Brian McBride, a two-time All-American from St. Louis, is the first overall player selected by Columbus.

April 13, 1996: The Crew&rsquos inaugural game against D.C. United results in a 4-0 Crew victory in front of a crowd of 25,266.

Aug. 2, 1996: With The Crew in fifth-place and a 6-16 record, Head Coach Timo Liekoski resigns. Assistant coach Tom Fitzgerald is immediately named head coach on an interim basis.

Sept. 15, 1996: The Crew sets the season record for attendance in Columbus when 31,550 fans come out to see The Crew defeat the MetroStars 2-0 in the last regular season home game of the inaugural year.

Sept. 25, 1996: The Crew makes its first-ever playoff appearance, losing at home, 2-0 to Tampa Bay.

Oct. 24, 1996: The Crew officially removes the interim title from Tom Fitzgerald&rsquos name and names him head coach after he led the team to a 9-1 run at the end of the season and into the playoffs.

Oct. 8, 1997: Columbus wins its first playoff series, beating Tampa Bay 2-0 to win the series two games to none and advance to its first Eastern Conference Finals Series.

May 19, 1998: The Crew announces plans for the construction of the country&rsquos first-ever soccer-specific stadium, on the grounds of the Ohio Expo Center. The 25-year lease paves the way for construction of a 22,500 seat stadium. NBBJ is the architect on the project.

Aug. 14, 1998: The Crew break ground on a 22,500 seat soccer-specific stadium. MLS Commissioner Doug Logan announces that the new stadium will host the MLS All-Star Game in 2000 and the 2001 MLS Cup.

Oct. 18, 1998: In the last MLS game ever played at Ohio Stadium, The Crew leave &ldquoThe Shoe&rdquo with a 4-2 playoff win over D.C., snapping United&rsquos MLS record 13-game playoff win streak. The Crew end the Ohio Stadium era with an all-time home record of 33-20.

May 15, 1999: The Crew opens Columbus Crew Stadium, the first stadium built specifically for soccer in the United States. The Crew down the New England Revolution 2-0 before a sold-out crowd of 24,741.

July 29, 2000: A standing-room-only crowd of 23,495 is on hand as Columbus Crew Stadium plays host to the 2000 MLS All-Star Game. Mike Clark, Brian McBride, and Dante Washington all represent the hometown Crew.

May 17, 2001: Tom Fitzgerald is dismissed as Crew head coach and replaced on an interim basis by his top assistant Greg Andrulis, who is later given the job.

June 21, 2004: Crew specialty license plates, featuring the club&rsquos logo, are introduced by the Ohio Bureau of Motor Vehicles.

Nov. 12, 2004: Greg Andrulis is named MLS Coach of the Year, making him the first Crew coach so honored, and Robin Fraser is named MLS Defender of the Year.

July 12, 2005: Head coach Greg Andrulis is relieved of his duties. Assistant coach Robert Warzycha is named interim head coach.

Oct. 20, 2005: Sigi Schmid is named the fifth head coach in Crew history. Interim head coach Robert Warzycha accepts an offer to remain as Schmid&rsquos top assistant.

Dec. 14, 2006: Crew Founder Lamar Hunt, one of the most renowned pioneers in American sports history, dies following an eight-year battle with prostate cancer.

Nov. 13, 2008: The Columbus Crew defeats the Chicago Fire 2-1, winning the team the Eastern Conference title for the first time in its 13-year history and earning the team&rsquos first trip to the MLS Cup final.

Nov. 20, 2008: Guillermo Barros Schelotto is named the MVP of Major League Soccer, becoming the first Crew player to win the award.

Nov. 23, 2008: The Columbus Crew win the MLS Cup with a 3-1 victory over the New York Red Bulls. It is the team&rsquos first title in its 13-year history.

Dec. 9, 2008: The Columbus Crew confirms in a statement that coach Sigi Schmid will not return to the team next season.

Dec. 12, 2008: Major League Soccer announces that the Seattle Sounders paid the Columbus Crew an undisclosed amount of league allocation money and cash in exchange for the Crew&rsquos release of former coach Sigi Schmid from the residual obligations of his expired contract. The league found no evidence of tampering on Seattle&rsquos part, but the Sounders&rsquo payment to the Crew was made in exchange for the Crew&rsquos agreement to not enforce a noncompete clause in Schmid&rsquos contract.

Dec. 22, 2008: Robert Warzycha is named coach of the Crew after 13 seasons as a player and assistant coach.

July 13, 2009: The Crew visits the White House for a congratulatory meeting with President Barack Obama.

June 2, 2010: The Dispatch reports that Texas-based Hunt Sports Group, the Crew&rsquos investor-operator, has hired the Cleveland-based investment bank Western Reserve Partners to sell a minority ownership stake in the team to one or more local investors. The Hunt family will continue to own a majority share of the team and 11-year-old Columbus Crew Stadium.

July 30, 2013: Precourt Sports Ventures purchases the Crew from Hunt Sports Group. Columbus Mayor Michael B. Coleman and Hunt Sports Group Chairman Clark Hunt say a key point in the sale was that the Crew remain in Columbus -- although the contract does not contain language tying the team to the city.

Nov. 6, 2013: Crew investor-operator Anthony Precourt announces the hiring of former U.S. international player Gregg Berhalter as the seventh coach in Crew history.

Oct. 8, 2014: The Crew unveils their first change to the club&rsquos name, Columbus Crew SC, and logo since Major League Soccer&rsquos inaugural season in 1996. The new visual identity features a circular logo however, the new logo will not appear on jerseys until next season, when all-new uniforms will be revealed.

Oct. 26, 2014: The Columbus Crew SC ends its regular season with a 2-1 win over the Philadelphia Union. The Crew advances to the Major League Soccer&rsquos playoffs for the first time in three years.

Nov. 9, 2014: The team is eliminated from its first playoff appearance in three years in the Major League Soccer Eastern Conference semifinals after a 3-1 loss to New England.

March 3, 2015: The team announces its first stadium-naming rights partner, Mapfre (pronounced MAH-fray) Insurance and the change of the stadium name from &ldquoCrew Stadium&rdquo to &ldquoMapfre Stadium.&rdquo

Nov. 29, 2015: Columbus Crew SC wins the Eastern Conference trophy and will play host to the MLS Cup final against the Portland Timbers Dec. 6 in Mapfre Stadium.

Dec. 6, 2015: Columbus Crew SC is denied its title by the Portland Timbers, losing to the Timbers 2-1 in front of a standing-room crowd of 21,747 at the MLS Cup championship match at Mapfre Stadium.

May 12, 2016: The Crew makes the biggest trade in team history this morning, sending unsettled star striker Kei Kamara to the New England Revolution in exchange for a lengthy list of resources in return.

Feb. 24, 2017: The Crew announces Acura as its jersey partner, kicking off a three-year agreement. Financial terms are not disclosed, but Andy Loughnane, president of business operations for the team, says the deal represents the largest annual commercial deal in club history. Acura&rsquos logo and name will appear on the front of all Crew uniforms, replacing Barbasol, which for five years served as the team&rsquos uniform sponsor.

March 5, 2018: The State of Ohio and the city of Columbus file a lawsuit against the owner of the Columbus Crew SC and Major League Soccer in an attempt to keep them from ditching Columbus in favor of Austin, Texas. The lawsuit, filed in Franklin County Common Pleas Court, invokes a 1996 law enacted after Art Modell moved his Cleveland Browns to Baltimore, where the team was renamed the Ravens. The state law says no professional team that gets public assistance or uses public facilities can leave town without giving six months' notice and providing locals an opportunity to buy the team.

May 29, 2018: MLS Commissioner Don Garber announces FC Cincinnati as the league&rsquos newest expansion team, to begin play in 2019. But while Cincinnati celebrated, the question remained whether MLS will have two teams in Ohio next year, or just one.

July 31, 2018: Austin, Texas commercial real estate firm Capella Capital Partners told the Austin Business Journal it has submitted two separate proposals for McKalla Place, the 24-acre, city-owned site in north Austin, both of which include plans for an Austin soccer stadium.

August 6, 2018: An order from Franklin County Court of Common Pleas Judge Jeffrey M. Brown ensures the city of Columbus and State of Ohio lawsuit against Major League Soccer and Crew operator Precourt Sports Ventures will extend at least into September. Brown ordered the tolling period, or pause, on the case be extended 44 days. The initial toll, which came in May as a part of an order that also delayed discovery and a ruling on the constitutionality of Ohio Revised Code 9.67 &mdash the basis of the lawsuit &mdash lasted 90 days.

August 15, 2018: After four hours of discussion, the Austin City Council voted 7-4 to approve a term sheet between Precourt Sports Ventures and the city detailing the terms of a stadium lease at the 24-acre, city-owned McKalla Place site in north Austin.

August 22, 2018: The Crew ownership group unveils the name of its future Austin Major League Soccer team as Austin FC, and its colors as green and black. The Austin FC logo includes an image of an oak tree as part of its design. The team is using the slogan &ldquoGrow The Legend&rdquo in its branding.

October 12, 2018: Cleveland Browns owners Jimmy and Dee Haslam and the Edwards family of Columbus are part of a prospective ownership group seeking to purchase Crew SC and keep it in Columbus, Major League Soccer announced.

&ldquoMajor League Soccer and the Columbus Partnership have been working together for several months on a plan to keep Crew SC in Columbus and we have made significant progress,&rdquo the statement read. &ldquoRecently, the Haslam Family &mdash along with the Columbus-based Edwards Family &mdash have joined the effort to keep Crew SC in Columbus.

December 3, 2018: A Franklin County judge Monday denied the request of the Columbus Crew soccer team owner and Major League Soccer to dismiss a lawsuit by the city of Columbus and the State of Ohio that seeks to keep the team in Columbus.

December 5, 2018: Plans are revealed to revamp the Crew&rsquos current home at Mapfre Stadium into a large-scale community sports park.

December 6, 2018: A public-private partnership announced that it intends to break ground on a new $230 million Downtown soccer stadium for the Crew SC on a site west of Huntington Park and the Arena District in Columbus that once was proposed for a casino.

December 10, 2018: Columbus would contribute about $50 million, consisting mostly of 6.6 acres of city land and in-kind infrastructure such as roads and utilities. City officials have said no city money will be used to pay for construction of the stadium.

December 12, 2018: The state of Ohio has earmarked $15 million for the deal. Another $30 million will come through a new community authority that will be established for the stadium site.

December 18, 2018: Franklin County is contributing $45 million. Commissioners have agreed to contribute $2.5 million a year for 30 years.

Dec. 28, 2018: Major League Soccer announced that it reached an agreement with an ownership group that includes Cleveland Browns owners Dee and Jimmy Haslam and Crew team doctor Peter H. Edwards Jr. to become the new owners of the Crew, and the city of Columbus and state of Ohio moved to dismiss a lawsuit against MLS and the team.

Jan. 4, 2019: The Crew announces that Tim Bezbatchenko, 37, had been hired as the club&rsquos president and Caleb Porter, 43, had become the eighth coach in franchise history.

Oct. 10, 2019: Crew ownership and front-office personnel, city and state officials and Major League Soccer commissioner Don Garber dug into a pile of dirt in front of the stage to signify the beginning of a project scheduled to end in July 2021 with a new 20,000-seat stadium.

December 12, 2020: The Crew won their second MLS Cup just two years into the Haslam era, defeating the Seattle Sounders 3&ndash0 at Mapfre Stadium


The Extraordinary Focus of Christopher Columbus

There are many myths, mysteries and controversies that surround Christopher Columbus and his voyage to the Americas. However, ONE Thing is certain – this explorer had a boatload of focus.

Columbus wasn’t the first person to believe the world was round, nor was he the first person to discover the Americas. But that wasn’t Columbus’ big goal. He believed he could be the first to chart a western course to Asia. People said it couldn’t be done – correctly predicting that Europe was much further away from the East Indies than Columbus proclaimed. Many believed and argued that the trip would be too long to survive. Columbus wasn’t swayed. His dedication to proving his theory, his ONE Thing, ultimately put a whole new continent on the map.

Columbus Didn’t Let a Doubtful Monarchy Stop Him

Would you spend six long years trying to get startup funds for your venture? If you have the focus and perseverance of Christopher Columbus, that’s exactly what you would do if that’s what it took to make your ONE Thing happen.

Columbus didn’t have the capital to make a westward trip on his own, but the European monarchies did. He pleaded with the leaders of Portugal, France and England to no avail. The problem was that like many other people, the royals didn’t think Columbus’ theory of sailing westward to Asia was possible. Despite years of trying and being told no, Columbus continued to petition monarchies, promising them land and fortunes. Finally his passion and perseverance paid off. King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella reluctantly agreed to fund the trip hoping that they would be able to spread their Spanish empire across the Atlantic.

Columbus Didn’t Let Uncertainty Stop Him

Columbus knew that the voyage would be a long, difficult haul. He also understood that the rudimentary maps of the area west of Europe weren’t reliable. To keep track of the path of his ships amid so much uncertainty, he kept detailed logs of the course and distance traveled. He also used proven technology and new technology when selecting his ships to help ease the minds of his crew and provide more assurance they would be successful in making the trip. The Santa Maria was an older merchant ship that was slow but highly reliable. The Nina on the other hand was a totally new design called a caravel. Columbus was among the first to use a caravel, which proved to be ideal for voyages across the Atlantic. It was small, but what it lacked in size it made up for in strength, speed and agility.

Instead of letting uncertainty derail him, Columbus turned to technology to find solutions and make his ONE Thing possible.

Columbus Didn’t Let a Mutinous Crew Stop Him

For a captain, there is nothing more discouraging than losing the support of your crew. There were many doubters in Columbus’ day, and even his crew wasn’t without some concern when they set sail. As the weeks wore on, the sailors’ discontent and doubt began to grow. All the while Columbus didn’t waiver or lose his focus.

Things finally came to a head late in the voyage. Tired, hungry and ill, a group of sailors demanded that Columbus turn the ships around and head back to Spain. Instead of giving in, Columbus convinced the men to give him three more days. If they didn’t see land he would turn the ships around. On day three they all heard the cry from the crow’s nest. Land was just ahead.

He may not have discovered the Americas or actually created a route between Europe and Asia, but what he did accomplish was actually far greater. He brought the two hemispheres together and opened up a whole new continent for trade and exploration. Had Columbus not had the resilience to persevere against his doubters and an amazing focus on achieving his ONE Thing, history and life as we know it today would not be the same.


Mutiny Profiles: Christopher Columbus

Patrick J. Murphy and Ray W. Coye’s Mutiny and Its Bounty: Leadership Lessons from the Age of Discovery explores how great seafaring captains like Columbus and Magellan not only quelled mutinies but also built upon such incidents to strengthen their enterprises. Today’s organizational leaders have much to learn about leadership and tactics from these earlier masters. Learn more and read a short excerpt from the book below.

A few leadership qualities of the great Christopher Columbus:

  • Copious note taker
  • Able to reinvent himself (in Italy, Portugal, Spain)
  • Used mutiny to help his first enterprise
  • Had an incredible ability to communicate and to motivate others

Patrick J. Murphy and Ray W. Coye—

Compared to other seafarers, Columbus was an uncommonly dedicated journal keeper and strategic planner. His seafaring prowess was based on what he learned from the Portuguese and from counting and recording every single thing he could observe and research. He viewed the Italian explorer Marco Polo with cultural pride. Columbus’s own copy of Polo’s writings is filled with his critical marginalia. For his proposed venture to the west, Columbus had “determined to keep an account of the voyage, and to write down punctually everything we perform or say from day to day.” He promised Queen Isabella that he would “draw up a nautical chart, which shall contain the several parts of the land in their proper situations and also to compose a book to represent the whole by pictures, with latitudes and longitudes, on which all accounts it behooves me to abstain from sleep and make many efforts in navigation, which things will demand much labor.” As a manager, his style was based on evidence and hard work. As a leader he relied on the transformational effect of his ability to persuade others, as we shall see.

Mutinies were so natural in the Age of Discovery that they could be reliably expected to occur in just about any bold seafaring enterprise. They were a normal part of taking risks together in organized but uncertain settings. Leaders and members abided by an authority structure, but proximity during an enterprise made for a certain sense of equality. All leaders directly experienced mutiny. Great leaders knew how to respond effectively to mutiny, often through means so artful as to transform it into success. Because mutiny is a force, it ought to be possible ot leverage it in creative ways to serve a human enterprise. The culture of the Age of Discovery, especially in its early years, admitted these kinds of possibilities.

Columbus’s first enterprise is an excellent illustration of how a leader can respond to subtle and underlying tension when it flashes into mutinous action. In fact, he incurred at least two mutinies during his first and most famous venture to the New World.

The boldness of Columbus’s venture raised the bar for all other seafarers. At age forty, he led an enterprise comprising three ships and 120 members. The ship sailed past Palos and into the ocean on August 3, 1492. But months before the departure, the atmosphere around the enterprise had been uncomfortable. Columbus noted that the crew grumbled from the start about the long distance ahead and the uncertainty. Three days after leaving port, crew on the Pinta, reluctant to keep sailing away from familiar territory, sabotaged its rudder. Columbus was unflappable in response to such incidents. The Pinta‘s rudder was repaired at the Canary Islands as it was refitted with square sails. Such bothersome matters as sabotage stemmed in part from the royal decree given to Columbus. It prohibited Portuguese from joining the enterprise and authorized exoneration of crimes for those Castilians who did join. The latter allowance ensured the requisite number for an enterprise that “should not proceed by land to the east, as is customary, but by a westerly route.” It also attracted criminals while repelling good sailors, and it discouraged ship owners from lending their vessels to the ambitious project of a clever foreigner who had become known in Palos as a madman and a maniac. Yet sabotage, problems with crew membership, and unflattering perceptions of his character had no chance of breaking Columbus’s spirit. To the contrary they reinforced it.

Excerpted from Mutiny and Its Bounty: Leadership Lessons from the Age of Discovery. Copyright © 2013 by Patrick J. Murphy and Ray W. Coye. All rights reserved.


Contents

There is less certainty about its name than for the other two ships. Columbus's Journal of Navigation [1] for the first voyage frequently refers to the Pinta and the Niña by name, and often asserts that they were caravels, but it never refers to the flagship by name. [2] The surviving journal may contain flaws. The original journal, sent to the monarchs of Spain, did not survive, but an abstract (full of errors) by the historian, Bartolomé de las Casas, did. [3]

The historians offer two names: Gonzalo Fernández de Oviedo y Valdés calls it Gallega Antonio de Herrera y Tordesillas, Santa María. [2] One solution to the conundrum is that the ship began under de la Cosa as Gallega and was changed by Columbus to Santa María, [4] but there are other theories as well. Moreover, "la Gallega" can be taken as "the Galician," suggesting that the ship was constructed in that province and was named after it. [5] In the absence of proof, scholars can only speculate. C.E. Nowell remarked:

"There is a lunatic fringe of writers determined to establish far-fetched theories regarding the Columbus enterprise or to prove that the discoverer was of some nationality hitherto unsuspected." [6]

Master of the Santa María Edit

Columbus encountered Juan de la Cosa apparently by accident in the port of Palos de la Frontera [7] (circumstances moved so quickly with such unexpected result as to preclude any pre-arrangement between Columbus and de la Cosa see below), the point of embarkation for the yet undiscovered New World. De la Cosa was a professional master, navigator, and entrepreneur. His assistance would turn out to be a sine qua non-of the voyages of Columbus, and yet, due to the self-aggrandizement of Columbus in his journal, [8] and its revision and continuation by his son, de la Cosa remains a shadowy figure, except for the contribution for which he is best known, the earliest-known-surviving map of the New World.

The problem of the identity of Juan de la Cosa Edit

In early May 1492, Columbus, a newly appointed admiral in the royal navy, [9] and entourage show up at the port of Palos under orders from the queen to conduct an expedition westward looking for a route to the Indies. He carries with him also orders to the port authorities to impress a squadron of three caravels with supplies and crews, who thereafter would serve in the navy at regular seaman's pay. Two of the caravels were to be selected by the port authorities. They impressed the Niña and the Pinta, quite small caravels with a single deck each. The third was left up to Columbus to select.

The mission and the orders were unpopular. [10] The resistance of the town in every quarter extended the time required to obtain compliance. Given 10 days by the orders, they took 10 weeks. According to De la Riega, the general consensus of the late 19th century (still considered true today) was that "there was no time or money to go from port to port examining ships . " [11] Columbus necessarily chose a ship available in port, the nao Santa Maria/Gallega, with, presumably, the additional advantage of Juan de la Cosa as captain, a famous navigator and geographer. There was then only one nao to which the names applied (in whatever sequence), and not two.

Mutiny on the Santa María Edit

The relationship between Columbus and de la Cosa (hereinafter referenced as "the admiral" and "the captain", as they are in the journal) was problematic. The same problem was true of the other two ships even though all had agreed to sail voluntarily (but unwillingly and with bad grace), the complaints and the non-cooperation, now called mutiny, continued. Aboard the Santa María, as both the admiral and the captain were in the service of the Crown, the admiral had the rank. The ship-handling, however, was supposed to be the province of the captain. This protocol had been established in the very first Roman fleet, and, like the protocols of the Roman army, had prevailed in all the fleets of the countries descending from the Roman Empire. In any fleet, or its diminutive flotilla, or squadron, the commander of all the ships reported to the central government and held the position of admiral, regardless of any other social or military rank he may have had. The commander of any one ship was its magister, or "master" that is, the captain, or "head." He ran the ship, only providing an office for the admiral, and receiving from him the same orders as the other captains. This relationship must prevail until the ship was officially detached from the flotilla.

The journal reveals that in the first voyage these relationships were never settled. Columbus often overstepped his province and the masters with their men often disobeyed. For example, on the homeward leg, when Columbus is commanding the remaining two ships from the Niña, he is so uncomfortable that he wishes to rush home to bring matters before the queen, reported in this quote from Columbus:

I will not suffer the deeds of evil-disposed persons, with little worth, who, without respect for him to whom they owe their positions, presume to set up their own wills with little ceremony. [12]

When the ship was finally lost off Haiti, the captain refused to follow the admiral's plan for extracting the ship from the sandbank and instead sought help from the Niña. The admiral accused him of treason and desertion in the face of danger, [13] serious charges, for which defendants have received the death penalty. Judging by the vituperation in the journal, one might expect to read of some sort of court martial or attempted court martial at home afterward.

There is no record of any such proceedings. Moreover, the Life of Columbus by his son, who surely possessed Columbus's journal, is strangely lacking in references to Juan de la Cosa by name. Even in the shipwrecking incident, the son reports only that

Very soon the ship's master, whose watch it was, ran up .

Here the admiral is being portrayed as the captain of the ship, while "the master" evidently is reduced in rank to an ordinary seaman. Real captains, unless in a vessel much smaller than the nao, do not stand watch (the men on active duty), which reports to the captain (or should report). If Columbus is commanding the ship, apparently his master has nothing to do. [14] He is not even worthy of a name. This is where the irreconcilable contradictions in the evidence begin. Columbus obliterates Juan de la Cosa from his records.

The heroic disgrace Edit

The proof of his existence and his status is given in a conciliatory letter from the crown to the man over a year later, on 28 February 1494, which is phrased in the form of a judgement at the end of an unrecorded process:

D. Fernando and Doña Isabel . Salutations and thanks to you Juan de la Cosa, resident (vesino) of Santa Maria del Puerto, you have given us good service and we hope that you will help us from now on. In our service at our mandate you sailed as captain of a nao of yours to the ocean seas (por maestre de una nao vuestra á los mares del Océano). On that trip during which the lands and islands of the Indies were discovered, you lost your nao. In payment and satisfaction (por vos lo remunerar é satisfacer) we hereby give you license and faculty to take from the city of Jerez de la Frontera, or from any other city or town or province of Andalusia, two hundred cahises of wheat [15] to be loaded and carried from Andalusia to our province of Guipúzcoa, and to our county and the lordship of Vizcaya, and not elsewhere . Given in the town of Medina del Campo on the 28th day of the month of February, year of the birth of Our Lord Jesus Christ of one thousand four hundred and ninety and four years. [16]

The journal portrays a mutinous shipmaster who had refused duty, had disobeyed orders, and had lost the ship. Now the admiral was on the way to seek military justice from the sovereign. However, the first account of the sovereign's response gives no hint of any such violations. Pery says:

. the Royal Decree of February 28, 1494, does not seem made for anyone disgraced . (it) has no turning point: a man who disgraces himself by losing a ship . cannot be paid for the ship . the aforementioned letter makes us think that . the story of events is one of many added by Father Las Casas . [17]

Too many places at once Edit

There are a number of other logical difficulties with this now isolated legal document that is, its participants no doubt knew what they meant by its terms, but not enough knowledge of the circumstances survives to clarify their meaning. For example, does "una nao vuestra" imply that Juan de la Cosa had more than one ship of which the crown impressed one? In either case de la Cosa is clearly an entrepreneur or he would not be interested in transporting grain to sell. But if he had only one ship, and that was lost, how was he to transport the grain? Worse, Columbus had already left for his second voyage. There is strong evidence that de la Cosa was a member of it and therefore was not even in Spain when the letter addressed to him was published by the court. These difficulties are sufficient to have resulted in the proposition that there were two Juan de la Cosa's, one a master and entrepreneur, and the other a cartographer (see below).

There is additional evidence as to the location of "Santa Maria del Puerto," of which de la Cosa is stated to have been its vesino. [18] Not stated is whether it was his native community, or he moved there from elsewhere, or whether his company was located there, or his ships constructed and harbored there. Fortuitously a contemporary letter of the queen gives evidence as to its location, today considered most probable. The letter addresses Juan Rodríguez de Fonseca, the Bishop of Badajoz and royal officer managing the fleet. It is dated 25 August 1496, one month after the return of the fleet. It informs the Bishop that Juan de la Cosa, a vesino of Puerto de Santonia, had petitioned the crown for payment of salary accrued to men who had died in the service of the queen, presumably to be distributed to the relatives. [19] If de la Cosa went on the second voyage, he must have been a vesino of Santa Maria del Puerto when the queen was considering his petition for compensation for his ship. As he did not move while at sea and he was a vesino of Santoña within a month of his return, Santa Maria del Puerto and Santoña must be the same place, more or less, justifying the hypothesis that Santa Maria del Puerto is a prior name of Santoña. [20]

The etymology of the name is believed to be as follows: an object, "Santa Maria," is being stated to be in a place called Puerto. Fortuitously a single reference from a classical author provides a likely identification of Puerto.

Juan Vizcaino comes to light Edit

An ancestral home in Santoña and vicinity is supported by other evidence. There is a church in the vicinity, Santa Maria del Puerto, which once must have had a parish. No parish records concerning Juan have been identified, but the deficit can be explained by known fires over the centuries. There is a district named after the de la Cosa family, who were noble patrons of the neighborhood, [21] and there was also a reputed family home. The de la Cosas were prosperous mariners, explaining how Juan might have gotten the Santa Maria (but different theories have been proposed). In any case the high proportion of Cantabrians in the crew supports the theory. [22]

The name, de la Cosa, is consistent with the conventions of forming Spanish names from Basque names. The "de" was prefixed to the name as a sign of their legal nobility. It did not refer to a patronym, as in Indo-European, or to a place. [23] The remaining part of the name was a Basque name, formed according to the conventions of the Basque language. Juan's Basque name is cited in other publications of the times as Lacoza, Lakotsa, Lakotya, La Cosa, and Lakoza. An alternative is Juan Vizcaíno, "John the Basque". [24]

Was the historical Juan de la Cosa one man or two? Edit

The evidence concerning Juan de la Cosa is divided in two, an early, poorly attested period up to the missing turning point mentioned by Pery (above), in which he is a shipmaster and entrepreneur, and a later, well attested explorer serving in many senior roles: navigator, cartographer, master and consultant, who continued to sail with Columbus and also with other explorers such as Amerigo Vespucci. His is the earliest-known-surviving map of the new world. This bold explorer was killed by a poisoned arrow in a Custer-like raid on the natives, whom the Spanish had, evidently, underestimated. The early history of the Santa María belongs to the early phase.

The map Edit

The most certain evidence of Juan de la Cosa, cartographer, is a world map on parchment discovered in 1832, now in the Museo Naval in Madrid. [25] The map bears the inscription:

Juan de la cosa la fizo en el puerto de S: ma en año de 1500

Juan de la Cosa made it in the port of Santa Maria in the year 1500

"Puerto de Santa Maria" is not the same place as "Santa Maria del Puerto." In the former case, the Puerto is named Santa Maria. In the latter case the community of Santa Maria is located within the terrain called Puerto. The minority view regards them as variants, perhaps by error, of the name of the same place, but the majority view regards the former as a port near Cádiz in Andalusia famous for its role in New World exploration. Regardless of whether Santa Maria is one place or two, Santona can still figure as Juan's birthplace. In either case, how Juan arrived at Andalusia from Cantabria is a gap, one explanation being that there were two Juan's from Santona, but even that explanation requires a move.

The authenticity of the map has always been in question, especially since much of it is illegible to the unaided eye due to its dilapidated condition. Multispectral analysis, however, has brought out sufficient detail to perform cartographic and geographic analyses upon it, which are ongoing, and have been and are being published in a large variety of sources, many of them graphic. This article relies mainly on the summary given by Arthur Davies, who developed his theses in different articles and came to work up a standard summary. [26]

Exploration in the late 15th century was in the hands of a small class of veteran mariners, such as Columbus, de la Cosa, Vespucci, Cabot (another Genoese), and not a few others. History has dubbed these men and their companions Conquistadores from the later historical results, but it is unlikely that they viewed themselves as such in Columbus's time, being mainly interested in trade, gold, and colonization. Conquest is what they finally had to do to accomplish those goals in the lands of the natives. The resources for their explorations were provided by the monarchs of the major maritime countries: Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain, John II of Portugal and his successor, Manuel I of Portugal, and Henry VII of England. These monarchs in particular made exploration and possession of the New World their main preoccupation. They often allocated unlimited funding to the expeditions.

The professional mariners had to be first of all skilled ship captains. Second, they had to be able to navigate and be familiar with charts (a trade word for marine maps). Unlike today's navigators, who rely on admiralty charts and GPS's to determine position within a few feet, 15th-century mariners made their own charts during exploration of unknown lands, the "Portolan charts," from which subsequent sailors to the region would take sailing directions. These were promulgated freely among the mariners, in contrast to the classical protocols of secrecy. The monarchs, who had formulated treaties among themselves, needed to know as quickly as possible who had discovered and claimed what land masses, and when. [27]

In Columbus's times, the ad hoc portolans were brought back to the office of the chief navigator (whether captain or some other officer) where they were transferred to a mappa mundi, "world map." This latter was on view to any professional who visited the office. The mariners all knew each other. When not voyaging they visited each other to donate their own data and read the latest data from the mappa kept there. The development of the latest maps was their common cause, otherwise they continued to compete.

That Juan de la Cosa had his own office at Puerto de Santa Maria is thus made certain by the surviving map, published in 1500 under his name. That he did not himself draw the mappa is shown by the names assigned places on coasts he visited, and had a major hand in the nomenclature, such as the coast of Venezuela in 1499, but appear garbled or incomprehensible on the map, which must be attributed to a draftsman. De la Cosa knew what names he had assigned. [28] That he supervised work on the mappa is shown by the fact that he wrote instructions on it concerning the data that was to appear there.

este cavo se descubrio en ano de mil y CCCC XC IX por castilla syendo descubridor vicentians

this cape was discovered in the year of 1499 by Castile being the discoverer Vicente Yáñez

The publication date of the mappa is substantiated by the data that appears upon it. Landforms east of the Amazon were discovered by Vicente Pinzon, 1499 to 1500. Their appearance on the mappa must be dated to after September 1500, when he returned. He lost no time in visiting Juan de la Cosa's office, which must have been there on the port's harbor. That de la Cosa relied on Pinzon is shown by his map note that a certain cape was discovered by Pinzon in 1499. On the other hand, no data from discoveries made after 1500 appear on the map. It may therefore be dated to October to December 1500.

Amerigo Vespucci visited de la Cosa's office in 1500, probably to report data on coasts he had explored. In October, Rodrigo de Bastidas, another seasoned explorer, departed for the New World at the pleasure of the queen. His charter lists Juan de la Cosa and Vasco Núñez de Balboa as members. This is when de la Cosa left his instructions on the mappa. Vespucci is likely to have been left in charge, as, invited to Portugal to confer with its king about an unknown urgent matter, he felt free to bring along the map, as the Portuguese monarch had suggested. [29] Once there, Vespucci was made an offer he did not refuse, to command a new expedition to Brazil, ready and waiting for him. The result was the discovery and claiming of Brazil for Portugal.

De la Cosa arrived at Lisbon in 1503 on the trail of the map. On making inquiries he was promptly arrested, a hypocritical act, as the monarch knew perfectly well whose map it was. By this time the information had been copied. On negotiation Vespucci agreed to present the map to Isabella. No further additions had been made or would be made it was strictly a historical and ornamental object, and was already out of date. From these attested facts it is clear that de la Cosa, cartographer, maintained an office in Andalusia at Puerto de Santa Maria near Cadiz, where his mappa mundi was kept on display, and that he led a band of employees who maintained the map and kept the office while he was away on expedition. This status is not inconsistent with a role as entrepreneur.

The letter of Dr. Chanca Edit

Columbus's second voyage began on 25 September 1493, with the departure of a 17-ship armada from Cadiz under the command of the Admiral. As for the first voyage, the admiral was required to keep a log, but it also has been lost. Summaries of parts of it survive in his son's biography, and briefly in some other sources. [30] The most extensive account, however, is from a totally independent source, the letter of Dr. Diego Álvarez Chanca to the Council of Seville, of which he was a vesino. Dr. Chanca was the fleet surgeon, appointed by the queen. He wrote from the field, sending the post with Antonio de Torres, who was sailing back to Spain with news and requests.

Apart from the doctor's personal business in Seville, his letter is highly anthropological, giving a cultural view of the natives. With regard to the history of the voyage he says nearly nothing, but the turn of events revealed by the biography and a letter of Columbus posing as a "memorial" (see below) stands in sharp contrast to his optimism. We are, so to speak, being treated to the doctor's bedside manner, the patient being far from healthy.

Of events before the departure, little survives, [31] but the biography supplies some detail. The "turning point" mentioned by Pery (above) is not entirely absent. The first fleet returned to Palos (all two ships) and there received instructions to report to the royals at Barcelona. Nothing is said of de la Cosa. Martín Alonso Pinzón, captain of the renegade ship, the Pinta, which had gone off on its own hunting for gold, feeling guilty over the report he knew Columbus was going to make, stopped first in Galicia to send a request via messenger for a private audience with the royals. The playing field was no longer level, however. The pope had weighed in, approving the exploration, and setting lines of demarcation. Rejected, and ordered not to come to Barcelona except in the company of Columbus, a dejected Pinzon went home to Palos to die there of illness caused by hardship on the voyage. [32]

Whether he would have faced charges at Barcelona remains to be seen. He would have faced the glorification of Columbus. Previously, on 30 April 1492, the latter had been made a Don, with the title of "Admiral of the Ocean Sea." [33] On 28 May 1493, the status was confirmed, with the addition of the Pope's approval. [34]

In June Columbus arrived in Seville with a license to collect a fleet, in the same way, no doubt, as he had at Palos. As the fleet departed in September, there was not enough time to build one i.e., Columbus or his agents commandeered ships, leasing them from the owners. This status did not make them a private navy, as are privateers, since the personnel were in the royal navy and were being paid ultimately by the queen (next section). The biography says ". in a short time he had made ready seventeen ships, large and small, well stocked and carrying all the things and persons needed to settle those lands . " [35] This statement condensed is often used to fill in a gap in Dr. Chanca's letter, although the doctor cannot be proved to have said it.

Volunteers flocked to the standard from all walks of life, many willing to serve without pay. Columbus chose 1500 he thought would be the most useful. Unknown to him, trouble was already brewing beneath the surface, as was revealed in a crisis and was published in the "Memorial." Given new arms and armor, the soldiers sold them in Seville and kept the old and antiquated. [36] The fine cavalry horses also were sold and replaced with nags. [37] These ad hoc marines obviously expected no combat. The contractors were at work shorting provisions: the casks supplied were not watertight and the wine they carried leaked away [38] the salt beef was short and in poor condition foodstuffs required for cooking were missing, having been sold off elsewhere. Later the queen would swoop among the contractors like an avenging angel, but for now provisions and equipment would appear to be adequate.

The fleet, considered prepared, having assembled at Cadiz, departed from there, the admiral commanding, on 25 September 1493. The weather being unusually good, they sighted the New World again on 3 November, Dr. Cnanca complaining that "la noa Capitana" (flagship) was slower and had slowed them down. At dawn on the 3rd "un piloto de la nao Capitana," spied land, claiming the reward for that event. [39] The numerous navigators (pilotos) on board argued over the distance from Spain. The doctor quipped, he was not one who had not seen enough water.

The day was Sunday. The land spied was an island. As the dawn brightened another appeared, and then four more. [40] Chanca does not refer to them by name it is always a relative position: "the first seen", "the second seen", and so on. Some editions include the names dubbed in from the Biography. At the time Chanca wrote, the names were not known or not assigned. In fact Columbus had overshot Hispaniola to the southeast and was picking his way among the Lesser Antilles in the vicinity of Guadeloupe. He knew where he was roughly. All the ship captains had received instructions how to get to Navidad in case they were separated. Those were sealed until required, if ever. The point of this nicety remains obscure, as there was no one to spy out the secret who would not shortly know all.

The Biography says that the admiral named the first island seen Domenica, because discovered on Sunday. He named the second Marigalante after the ship. As the only extant edition of the original Biography is a translation of the Spanish into Tuscan, called Italian on the title page, by Alfonso Ulloa (Basque name), [41] the names in it cannot be assumed to be either Spanish or not Spanish unless so indicated by Ulloa. Whatever the origin, the name stayed with the island in western maps and writings, even though the Spanish did not settle there. It was occupied by the French in 1648, to whom it became Marie-Galante, a Frenchification of a presumed compound, Mari-Galante, "Gallant Mary." Whether in Italian or French, Galante is the same as English gallant.

The application is totally speculative. Saint Mary, if that is the person referenced by the name, is a figure of reverence, not an adventuress, and could not be called the latter without an insult to the religion. Anyone who dared such a meaning in those times would not be alive for much longer men were burned for less. Only modern pagan writers far from the fires of Inquisition might suggest that under the very noses of the authors of the Inquisition, the Don and Dona of Spain, and the staunchest advocates of Catholicism, Columbus, Juan de la Cosa and all his Basque countrymen, who were indispensable to the expedition, the patron saint of the expedition and the entire new Spanish Empire could be so insulted by a salacious ship name, and the same can be said of those who postulate salacious overtones for the Nina and Pinta.

The 1571 Italian text of the Biography is: [42]

. traversarano ad un'altra isola, a cui l'Ammiraglio pose nome Marigalante, per hauer la nave Capitana tal nome .

The "Memorial" letter of Columbus Edit

The admiral had planned to settle Navidad further, a goal he still had when he anchored before the sand bar on the last night at sea. On making the shocking discovery the next day that it no longer existed and the Europeans were all dead, massacred by the natives, he changed his mind, responding to the new military dimension of the affair. He explored further along the coast looking for a defensible site with a good harbor.

He found it at La Isabela, named after the queen, currently a historic park in the Dominican Republic, about 110 miles from Cap-Haitien, Haiti, a city close to the location of Navidad. According to Dr. Chanca, the criteria were "an excellent harbor and abundance of fish." [43] The site was defensible: the top of a ravine overlooking the Isabela River further defended by an impassible thicket of trees. The soil was so fertile that it grew an abundance of vegetables, especially the yam, in only 8 days. A landing was made 8 days before Christmas, 1493, about 3 months after the expedition had left port in Spain. Exploring parties were sent out to investigate native reports of gold in the hills. One found it in over 50 streams. [44]

Other evidence suggests that the real circumstances were not so rosy as the sanguine doctor decided to portray in fact, the opportunity to send letters was based on dire need. On 2 February 1494, a return fleet of 12 ships was dispatched to Spain under Antonio de Torres, ostensibly to report the news, but more pointedly to ask for emergency assistance. One third of his men were ill, he said, from eating and drinking native food and water. The doctor was working day and night. The men were still in huts built native-style, or else on the ships. Columbus alone had a stone, European-style house. Stone walls had been started, but the natives moved freely among them. The Europeans were in continual fear of a surprise attack, despite posting sentries. Would the sovereigns send immediately additional professionals and medical supplies along with decent European food, etc. No gold could be mined without the augment. [45]

Columbus did not ask directly. Instead he fabricated the excuse that he was instructing de Torres about what to put in a "memorial," or factual white paper, he was to formulate ad hoc and present to the sovereigns. This ruse fooled no one. De Torres passed it on to the sovereigns and they wrote their comments in the margins.

Those comments were entirely supportive, and he was given almost everything he asked for. The one exception was his request to convert some of the relief ships to slavers. He would capture some Carribs, put them aboard ships used to bring horses and other animals to the island, and transport them to Spain, where they would be converted, educated out of their man-eating, body-painting ways, and sold at the block to recoup the cost. The queen took this type of suggestion under further advisement, but her doing so did not appear to deter Columbus from enslaving the natives. The relief was dispatched immediately, undoubtedly in all or some of the same twelve caravels.

The letters from this phase divulge more information about the ships.

The major ports of the newly united 15th-century Spain Edit

The Atlantic coast of Iberia is divided between Spain and Portugal, but the coast of Portugal divides the Spanish coast. Spain and Portugal were intense competitors for any sort of maritime business and in the discovery and settlement of the New World. The staging ground for Spanish exploration was mainly the Atlantic coast of Andalusia, recently captured from the Moors in the 15th century. Northward from Andalusia was Portugal, and north of it Galicia. Its ports and ships served the northern trade routes. [46] The ships were heavier to withstand the winter seas.

On the western side of the northern coast of Iberia (eastward of Galicia) were Asturias and Cantabria, mountainous regions except for a coastal strip, occupied by a population speaking a Romance language. The east was given to the Basques, native Euskaldunak, a quasi-autonomous people speaking their own language, native Euskera, unrelated to any other. [47] Ordinary working Basques spoke no Spanish. The educated and professional classes were bilingual. They necessarily used Spanish in business, as Basque was not written for ordinary purposes (a few Basque authors began to appear in the 15th century). Their names were converted to Spanish according to rule. Under these Spanish names they made large contributions of manpower to the exploration and settlement of the New World. In the 15th century they were unswervingly loyal to Ferdinand and Isabella, and they to them.

The Atlantic coasts of Iberia being mainly mountainous, the cities and shipyards are on bays and the rivers that, draining the highlands, empty into them. The Roman word for one of these bays, or harbors, is portus, "throughway," closely related to porta, "gate." The concept survives in modern languages as "the gateway" to some region. Portus became puerto in Spanish. English speakers know it simply as port. The Romans further qualified portus with another name in the genitive case, which over the centuries was lost, leaving just puerto in Spain, but the Spanish followed the Roman custom by assigning a name after de.

Euskal Herria Edit

"Basque Country" is a semi-political community based on ethnicity. At the uppermost levels of loyalty and identity it is not a legal structure at all. There is no nation of the Basques. Basque Country is divided between two sovereign nations, Spain and France, in which it is called informally "Southern Basque Country" (Basque Hegoalde) and "Northern Basque Country" (Basque Iparralde), respectively. Within each of these a formal provincial structure applies. Iparralde contains Lapurdi, Behe Nafarroa, and Zuberoa. Hegoalde contains Nafarroa, Bizkaia, Araba, and Gipuzkoa (the spellings may vary in the transliterations into different languages). The provenience of these names is mainly unknown, except that they are ancient. In modern times, by the Spanish 1979 Statute of Autonomy, Bizkaia, Araba, and Gipuzkoa are combined into the Basque Autonomous Community, calling itself Euskadi. Nafarroa is its own Autonomous Community. [48]

The Pontevedra theory Edit

In 1897 Celso García de la Riega published a book specifically about Columbus's flagship, La Gallega, Nave Capitana De Colón: Primer Viaje De Descubrimientos, English "The Gallego, Command Ship of Columbus in the First Voyage of Discovery." It was dedicated to "The People of Pontevedra,"

whose name God has wanted to link to that of the caravel 'La Gallega', from whose castle Columbus saw . the revealing light of a new world. [49]

He was being financed by a factory owner of Pontevedra. He also expressed that he wanted to build the confidence of the people so that they might work to restore the prosperity of old. These motives were nothing like the objectivity demanded of today's scholars, but the book was popular right from its first publication. His thesis was that the Gallega had to have been constructed in Pontevedra, Galicia, in Spain's North-West region. [50] [51] at a time when it was a port and was at the peak of its prosperity.

De la Riega begins with the generally accepted circumstances of Columbus's departure from Spain, which he also accepts.

Santa María was probably a medium-sized nau (carrack), about 58 ft (17.7 m) long on deck, and according to Juan Escalante de Mendoza in 1575, Santa María was "very little larger than 100 toneladas" (about 100 tons, or tuns) burthen, or burden, [52] [53] [54] and was used as the flagship for the expedition. Santa María had a single deck and three small masts.

The other ships of the Columbus expedition were the smaller caravel-type ships Santa Clara (known as La Niña ("The Girl")), and La Pinta ("The Painted"). All these ships were second-hand (if not third- or more) and were not intended for exploration. Niña, Pinta, and the Santa María were modest-sized merchant vessels comparable in size to a modern cruising yacht. The exact measurements of length and width of the three ships have not survived, but good estimates of their burden capacity can be judged from contemporary anecdotes written down by one or more of Columbus's crew members, and contemporary Spanish and Portuguese shipwrecks from the late 15th and early 16th centuries which are comparable in size to that of Santa María. These include the ballast piles and keel lengths of the Molasses Reef Wreck and Highborn Cay Wreck in the Bahamas. Both were caravel vessels 19 m (62 ft) in length overall, 12.6 m (41 ft) keel length and 5 to 5.7 m (16 to 19 ft) in width, and rated between 100 and 150 tons' burden. [55] Santa María, being Columbus's largest ship, was only about this size, and Niña and Pinta were smaller, at only 50 to 75 tons' burden and perhaps 15 to 18 metres (49 to 59 ft) on deck [52] (updated dimensional estimates are discussed below in the section entitled Replicas).

At the pleasure of the queen Edit

On 2 January 1492, the last remaining Moslem stronghold in Spain, Granada, fell to the armies of the Catholic monarchs, Ferdinand and Isabella. They began making changes in the direction of cultural unity. The Moslems were encouraged to leave for North Africa. The Jews were given a choice: convert to Catholicism or leave the country (a dictate that led to the Expulsion of the Jews from Spain). [56] The Spanish Inquisition had already been instituted in 1478 to detect hypocrisy. Roman methods of interrogation were still in effect, which always involved torture, even if the suspect began by confessing everything. As the New Christians (so they were called), were never arrested unless already convicted in public belief, the outcome was almost always some form of burning, dead (if already executed) or alive, although individual expulsion was sometimes used. [57] The Jews who converted, called conversos, were often welcomed into high places with open arms, so to speak. The Grand Inquisitor himself, Tomás de Torquemada, was of a converso family. On the other hand, those who professed Catholicism, but practiced or seemed to practice Crypto-Judaism, were called Marranos. These lived a life of terrible fear and secrecy.

In the conclusion of their affairs at Granada the monarchs dismissed Christopher Columbus, who had been at their court for 6½ years petitioning for support for an expedition to discover a great circle route to the far east ("regions of India," in English "Indies"), which would entail a voyage due west over the deep and unknown ocean. [58] Paying him for his time and trouble, they dismissed him and his suite for good and all, they thought. [59] They had nothing against his being Italian, [60] as he professed Catholicism also, but their Spanish advisors had condemned the idea as unprofitable.

No sooner had he departed from nearby Santa Fe, the temporary capital, than Luis de Santángel, a converso in the position of royal treasurer, and some other friends of Columbus, convinced the queen that great risks could bring great profits at a minimal cost on this expedition. [61] Columbus was summoned from the road only four miles away and was unexpectedly given the support he had been denied all this time along with command of the expedition and the permanent rank of admiral and governor of all lands he should acquire. He was to receive 10% of all portable valuables he would acquire, but not until he had acquired them. Meanwhile, the queen would stand the expenses, for which she said she would pledge her jewels for collateral, if necessary (it was apparently not necessary). [62]

The only way to understand a head of state being privately indebted for public enterprises, or having to pawn personal property, is to turn back the clock in the evolution of modern states. There were no departments or agencies staffed by professionals who for the most part carry on without the immediate supervision of the head of state. Fort Knox, so to speak, was non-existent.

In 15th-century Spain and other European monarchies the sovereign presided over every state enterprise. The operational expenses were covered in advance by loans to the sovereign or persons designated by the sovereign. The sources of the loans were generally customary. The backers were happy to do that for an agreed interest. The revenue to pay off specific loans came from the exercise of governmental prerogatives: taxes, tariffs, fines, fees, etc. The sovereign presided over the imposition of these obligations. They were collected, however, by private enterprises, as they had been in Roman times. Thus, the promise of Isabella to pay was really the assertion that she would create an obligation for her subjects to pay. Meanwhile, she had to conform to the protocols for borrowing money, such as putting up collateral. Possession of such collateral would never be demanded. The jewels were never at risk.

The voyage was principally financed by a syndicate of seven noble Genovese bankers resident in Seville (the group was linked to Amerigo Vespucci and funds belonging to Lorenzo di Pier Francesco de Medici). Hence, all the accounting and recording of the voyage was kept in Seville. This also applies to the second voyage, even though the syndicate had by then disbanded. [ citation needed ]

Cuba and Hispaniola Edit

According to a glowing letter sent by Columbus to his chief supporter, Luis de Santángel, in February 1493, from the Canary Islands, Cuba was the fifth island renamed by him, its new name being Juana. [63] This time the name did not prevail over the native name, Cuba. However, Columbus's order is a simplification. He visited many more small islands, investigating everything everywhere. Striking the north coast of Cuba, he sailed westward, going around the west end of the island. Then he sailed eastward and southward. Clinging to the belief that he was in the Far East, he at first supposed he was off Cipango, Portuguese name for "Japan," which supposition was recorded in the journal. [64] By the time of the letter, he had changed it to Cathay, or China.

While skimming the coast of Cuba from bay to bay, the ships were visited by many native vessels of life-boat and galley styles. [63] The natives invited them to visit their villages ashore. He found the natives comely and friendly. They were under a pyramidal tribal structure, were polygamous, wore no clothes, painted their bodies, and wore jewelry: rings, bracelets, anklets, necklaces, some of which were made of gold. Furniture was often elaborately carved in the shape of animals with golden eyes and ears. They were all helpful, wondering at the Europeans. Inquiring as to the source of the gold, Columbus was told that it was produced on, and traded from, the island of Bohio. [65]

On 5 November, the crews collected large amounts of spices that were very expensive in Europe. On the 6th, they were invited to a feast in a mountain village of 50 houses, 1000 population, who thought the Spanish were from heaven. The Spanish smoked tobacco for the first time. They repaid the kindness of the natives by beginning, on 12 November, to detain native visitors to the ship and kidnap natives on shore, planning to carry them back to Spain. Many would be sold into slavery there, against the express orders of the queen. The natives were so credulous that one father whose entire family had been kidnapped begged to be taken also so that he could share heaven. It was at this time that the reputation of childishness and simplicity became attached to the natives, whom the Spanish called Indios, "Indians." He wrote to de Santángel: "they are so unsuspicious and so generous with what they possess, that no one who had not seen it would believe it."

On 21 November the fleet set course for Bohio. Natives aboard the Pinto told Columbus where it was. They must have known a great deal more not told to Columbus, as the master of the Pinto decided to go gold hunting on his own. After a confrontation with Columbus the Pinto weighed anchor and disappeared. On 23 November the Nina and Santa María reached Bohio. [66]

Shipwreck Edit

The details of the Santa María 's end were given in Columbus's journal, and his son Ferdinand's Life of Columbus. The two often differ. Ferdinand had access to the original journal, while moderns can access only the summary of Las Casas. Only hypothetical reconstructions of the sequence of events are available. They depend on, or determine, (unknown which) the meaning of certain features and events in the now unknown original. The overall location is certain. Various investigators have examined it in person, drawing different conclusions, among them Samuel Eliot Morison. The archaeologists also have been at work. No evidence is for certain. Interpretations depend on a perceived preponderance of circumstantial evidence.

The wreck did not occur on any planned return trip, as though the mere discovery of new lands was enough for the great explorer. On the contrary, Columbus was on a hunt for portable valuables, having already claimed the entire region as the property of Spain, even though it was inhabited by a populous trading and agricultural nation. That nation was told nothing of Columbus's intent. The main commodities that he was now seeking were gold, spices, and people, in that order.

On 24 December (1492), not having slept for two days, Columbus decided at 11:00 p.m. to lie down to sleep. The night being calm, the steersman also decided to sleep, leaving only a cabin boy to steer the ship, a practice which the admiral had always strictly forbidden. [67] With the boy at the helm, the currents carried the ship onto a sandbank.

She struck "so gently that it could scarcely be felt." The obstacle was not a shoal. but a bar protruding above the surface, a beach, and waves with audible surf. The ship was making way into the ever diminishing shallows and becoming embedded more and more deeply in the sandy bottom. The boy shouted. The admiral appeared, followed shortly by the captain. Under orders of the admiral to sink an anchor astern to impede the drift, the captain and seamen launched a boat. [68]

As the relationship between the admiral and the captain and crew was never very good (the admiral had commandeered the captain's ship), the admiral remained forever recriminatory about what happened next. Disregarding the admiral's orders, the boat rowed to the nearby Nina, the admiral says, to ask for rescue. Shortly they turned back accompanied by a boat from the Nina, the idea being, perhaps, that the two boats might tow the flagship back to deeper waters. The admiral claims that the renegade crew was denied permission to board. The Pinta was nowhere in sight.

There is another interpretation. Asserting that the hasty abandonment of the vessel was less than credible, Arthur Davies hypothesizes that the captain perceived the ship as being beyond the help of small boats and an anchor, but might yet be hauled off by the Nina under sail in the prevailing offshore winds. He interprets Columbus's words and deeds as probable hypocrisy: "If anyone 'wrecked' the Santa María of set purpose, it was surely the admiral himself." The admiral used this method, he suggests, of placing a colony on Hispaniola, which he knew that the rest of the company would not accept otherwise. His motive was the fact that the natives were obtaining gold in the highlands and were brokering it abroad. He needed gold and land to pay for the voyage. [69]

The ship ran aground off the present-day site of Cap-Haïtien, Haiti. [70] Realizing that the ship was beyond repair, Columbus ordered his men to strip the timbers from the ship. The timbers were later used to build a fort which Columbus called La Navidad (Christmas) because the wreck occurred on Christmas Day, north from the modern town of Limonade [71] [72] (see map, and the photograph).

Santa María carried several anchors, possibly six. [73] One of the anchors now rests in the Musée du Panthéon National Haïtien (MUPANAH), in Port-au-Prince, Haiti. [74]

On 13 May 2014, underwater archaeological explorer Barry Clifford claimed that his team had found the wreck of Santa María. [75] [76] In the following October, UNESCO's expert team published their final report, concluding that the wreck could not be Columbus's vessel. Fastenings used in the hull and possible copper sheathing dated it to the 17th or 18th century. [77] [78] [79]


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