January 22, 2014 Day 2 of the Sixth Year - History

January 22, 2014 Day 2 of the Sixth Year - History

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President Barack Obama works on his State of the Union address with Director of Speechwriting Cody Keenan in the Oval Office, Jan. 22, 2014

10:00AM THE PRESIDENT and VICE PRESIDENT receive the Presidential Daily Briefing
Oval Office

10:45AM THE PRESIDENT and VICE PRESIDENT meet with the President’s Commission on Election Administration
Roosevelt Room

11:30AM THE PRESIDENT and VICE PRESIDENT convene a meeting with select Cabinet Secretaries of the Council on Women and Girls
Oval Office

12:30PM THE PRESIDENT and VICE PRESIDENT meet for lunch
Private Dining Room

2:05PM THE PRESIDENT and VICE PRESIDENT host an event for the Council on Women and Girls
East Room

4:30PM THE PRESIDENT and VICE PRESIDENT meet with Secretary of the Treasury Lew

Oval Office

Constitution of India

The Constitution of India (IAST: Bhāratīya Saṃvidhāna) is the supreme law of India. [3] [4] The document lays down the framework that demarcates fundamental political code, structure, procedures, powers, and duties of government institutions and sets out fundamental rights, directive principles, and the duties of citizens. It is the longest written constitution of any country on Earth. [a] [5] [6] [7]

B. R. Ambedkar
Chairman of the Drafting Committee

Surendra Nath Mukherjee
Chief Draftsman of the Constituent Assembly [2]

It imparts constitutional supremacy (not parliamentary supremacy, since it was created by a constituent assembly rather than Parliament) and was adopted by its people with a declaration in its preamble. [8] Parliament cannot override the constitution.

It was adopted by the Constituent Assembly of India on 26 November 1949 and became effective on 26 January 1950. [9] The constitution replaced the Government of India Act 1935 as the country's fundamental governing document, and the Dominion of India became the Republic of India. To ensure constitutional autochthony, its framers repealed prior acts of the British parliament in Article 395. [10] India celebrates its constitution on 26 January as Republic Day. [11]

The constitution declares India a sovereign, socialist, secular, [12] and democratic republic, assures its citizens justice, equality and liberty, and endeavours to promote fraternity. [13] The original 1950 constitution is preserved in a helium-filled case at the Parliament House in New Delhi. The words "secular" and "socialist" were added to the preamble in 1976 during the Emergency. [14]

Below is an abbreviated outline of Amash's academic, professional, and political career: Ε]

U.S. House


At the beginning of the 116th Congress, Amash was assigned to the Oversight and Government Reform Committee. He was first assigned to the committee in 2011 and resigned from the committee on July 8, 2019. Ζ] Following his resignation from the Oversight and Government Reform Committee, Amash had no committee assignments in the U.S. House. Η]


At the beginning of the 115th Congress, Amash was assigned to the following committees: ⎖]


Amash served on the following committees: ⎗]


Amash served on the following committees: ⎘]

    • Subcommittee on Government Operations
    • Subcommittee on National Security, Homeland Defense and Foreign Operations


    Amash served on the following House committees: ⎙]

    • Subcommittee on Federal Workforce, U.S. Postal Service, and Labor Policy Vice Chair
    • Subcommittee Government Organization, Efficiency, and Financial Management
    • Subcommittee on TARP, Financial Services, and Bailouts of Public and Private Programs

    In March 2012, Amash was one of two Republicans who voted against Paul Ryan's budget plan in the House Budget Committee. Amash and Tim Huelskamp both said they felt the plan did not cut the budget fast enough. In December 2012 it was revealed that both representatives would not serve on the House Budget Committee in the 113th Congress. ⎚] ⎛]


    Pre-Islamic calendar

    For central Arabia, especially Mecca, there is a lack of epigraphical evidence but details are found in the writings of Muslim authors of the Abbasid era. Inscriptions of the ancient South Arabian calendars reveal the use of a number of local calendars. At least some of these South Arabian calendars followed the lunisolar system. Both al-Biruni and al-Mas'udi suggest that the ancient Arabs used the same month names as the Muslims, though they also record other month names used by the pre-Islamic Arabs. [6] [ which? ]

    The Islamic tradition is unanimous in stating that Arabs of Tihamah, Hejaz, and Najd distinguished between two types of months, permitted (ḥalāl) and forbidden (ḥarām) months. [6] The forbidden months were four months during which fighting is forbidden, listed as Rajab and the three months around the pilgrimage season, Dhu al-Qa‘dah, Dhu al-Hijjah, and Muharram. [6] A similar if not identical concept to the forbidden months is also attested by Procopius, where he describes an armistice that the Eastern Arabs of the Lakhmid al-Mundhir respected for two months in the summer solstice of 541 CE. [6] However, Muslim historians do not link these months to a particular season. The Qur'an links the four forbidden months with Nasī’, a word that literally means "postponement". [6] According to Muslim tradition, the decision of postponement was administered by the tribe of Kinanah, [7] by a man known as the al-Qalammas of Kinanah and his descendants (pl. qalāmisa). [8]

    Different interpretations of the concept of Nasī’ have been proposed. [9] Some scholars, both Muslim [10] [11] and Western, [6] [7] maintain that the pre-Islamic calendar used in central Arabia was a purely lunar calendar similar to the modern Islamic calendar. According to this view, Nasī’ is related to the pre-Islamic practices of the Meccan Arabs, where they would alter the distribution of the forbidden months within a given year without implying a calendar manipulation. This interpretation is supported by Arab historians and lexicographers, like Ibn Hisham, Ibn Manzur, and the corpus of Qur'anic exegesis. [12]

    This is corroborated by an early Sabaic inscription, where a religious ritual was "postponed" (ns'’w) due to war. According to the context of this inscription, the verb ns'’ has nothing to do with intercalation, but only with moving religious events within the calendar itself. The similarity between the religious concept of this ancient inscription and the Qur'an suggests that non-calendaring postponement is also the Qur'anic meaning of Nasī’. [6] The Encyclopaedia of Islam concludes "The Arabic system of [Nasī’] can only have been intended to move the Hajj and the fairs associated with it in the vicinity of Mecca to a suitable season of the year. It was not intended to establish a fixed calendar to be generally observed." [13] The term "fixed calendar" is generally understood to refer to the non-intercalated calendar.

    Others concur that it was originally a lunar calendar, but suggest that about 200 years before the Hijra it was transformed into a lunisolar calendar containing an intercalary month added from time to time to keep the pilgrimage within the season of the year when merchandise was most abundant. This interpretation was first proposed by the medieval Muslim astrologer and astronomer Abu Ma'shar al-Balkhi, and later by al-Biruni, [8] [14] al-Mas'udi, and some western scholars. [15] This interpretation considers Nasī’ to be a synonym to the Arabic word for "intercalation" (kabīsa). The Arabs, according to one explanation mentioned by Abu Ma'shar, learned of this type of intercalation from the Jews. [7] [8] [14] The Jewish Nasi was the official who decided when to intercalate the Jewish calendar. [16] Some sources say that the Arabs followed the Jewish practice and intercalated seven months over nineteen years, or else that they intercalated nine months over 24 years there is, however, no consensus among scholars on this issue. [17]

    Prohibiting Nasī’

    In the tenth year of the Hijra, as documented in the Qur'an (Surah At-Tawbah (9):36–37), Muslims believe God revealed the "prohibition of the Nasī'".

    The number of the months, with God, is twelve in the Book of God, the day that He created the heavens and the earth four of them are sacred. That is the right religion. So wrong not each other during them. And fight the unbelievers totally even as they fight you totally and know that God is with the godfearing. Know that intercalation (nasi) is an addition to disbelief. Those who disbelieve are led to error thereby, making it lawful in one year and forbidden in another in order to adjust the number of (the months) made sacred by God and make the sacred ones permissible. The evil of their course appears pleasing to them. But God gives no guidance to those who disbelieve.

    The prohibition of Nasī' would presumably have been announced when the intercalated month had returned to its position just before the month of Nasi' began. If Nasī' meant intercalation, then the number and the position of the intercalary months between AH 1 and AH 10 are uncertain western calendar dates commonly cited for key events in early Islam such as the Hijra, the Battle of Badr, the Battle of Uhud and the Battle of the Trench should be viewed with caution as they might be in error by one, two, three or even four lunar months. This prohibition was mentioned by Muhammad during the farewell sermon which was delivered on 9 Dhu al-Hijjah AH 10 (Julian date Friday 6 March, 632 CE) on Mount Arafat during the farewell pilgrimage to Mecca. [ citation needed ]

    Certainly the Nasi’ is an impious addition, which has led the infidels into error. One year they authorise the Nasi', another year they forbid it. They observe the divine precept with respect to the number of the sacred months, but in fact they profane that which God has declared to be inviolable, and sanctify that which God has declared to be profane. Assuredly time, in its revolution, has returned to such as it was at the creation of the heavens and the earth. In the eyes of God the number of the months is twelve. Among these twelve months four are sacred, namely, Rajab, which stands alone, and three others which are consecutive.

    The three successive sacred (forbidden) months mentioned by Prophet Muhammad (months in which battles are forbidden) are Dhu al-Qa'dah, Dhu al-Hijjah, and Muharram, months 11, 12, and 1 respectively. The single forbidden month is Rajab, month 7. These months were considered forbidden both within the new Islamic calendar and within the old pagan Meccan calendar. [21] [6] [22] [23] [24]

    The Islamic day begins at sunset. Muslims gather for prayer at a mosque at noon on "gathering day" (Yawm al-Jumʿah) which corresponds with the lunar start of the day which is Thursday evening, at the moment when the sun has completely set. [ citation needed ] Maghrib on this day is the start of the day. [ citation needed ]

    Thus "gathering day" is often regarded as the weekly day off. This is frequently made official, with many Muslim countries adopting Friday and Saturday (e.g., Egypt, Saudi Arabia) or Thursday and Friday as official weekends, during which offices are closed other countries (e.g., Iran) choose to make Friday alone a day of rest. A few others (e.g., Turkey, Pakistan, Morocco, Nigeria, Malaysia) have adopted the Saturday-Sunday weekend while making Friday a working day with a long midday break to allow time off for worship. [ citation needed ]

    Four of the twelve Hijri months are considered sacred: Rajab (7), and the three consecutive months of Dhū al-Qa'dah (11), Dhu al-Ḥijjah (12) and Muḥarram (1). [25] As the mean duration of a tropical year is 365.24219 days, while the long-term average duration of a synodic month is 29.530587981 days, the average lunar year is (365.24219 − 12 × 29.530587981 ≈) 10.87513 days shorter than the average solar year, causing months of the Hijri calendar to advance about eleven days earlier relative to dates in the Gregorian calendar every calendar year. [b] "As a result, the cycle of twelve lunar months regresses through the seasons over a period of about 33 [solar] years". [26]

    Length of months

    Each month of the Islamic calendar commences on the birth of the new lunar cycle. Traditionally this is based on actual observation of the moon's crescent (hilal) marking the end of the previous lunar cycle and hence the previous month, thereby beginning the new month. Consequently, each month can have 29 or 30 days depending on the visibility of the moon, astronomical positioning of the earth and weather conditions. However, certain sects and groups, most notably Bohras Muslims namely Alavis, Dawoodis and Sulaymanis and Shia Ismaili Muslims, use a tabular Islamic calendar (see section below) in which odd-numbered months have thirty days (and also the twelfth month in a leap year) and even months have 29.

    In pre-Islamic Arabia, it was customary to identify a year after a major event which took place in it. Thus, according to Islamic tradition, Abraha, governor of Yemen, then a province of the Christian Kingdom of Aksum (Ethiopia), attempted to destroy the Kaaba with an army which included several elephants. The raid was unsuccessful, but that year became known as the Year of the Elephant, during which Muhammad was born (sura al-Fil). Most equate this to the year 570 CE, but a minority use 571 CE.

    The first ten years of the Hijra were not numbered, but were named after events in the life of Muhammad according to Abū Rayḥān al-Bīrūnī: [28]

    1. The year of permission.
    2. The year of the order of fighting.
    3. The year of the trial.
    4. The year of congratulation on marriage.
    5. The year of the earthquake.
    6. The year of enquiring.
    7. The year of gaining victory.
    8. The year of equality.
    9. The year of exemption.
    10. The year of farewell.

    In AH 17 (638 CE), Abu Musa Ashaari, one of the officials of the Caliph Umar in Basrah, complained about the absence of any years on the correspondence he received from Umar, making it difficult for him to determine which instructions were most recent. This report convinced Umar of the need to introduce an era for Muslims. After debating the issue with his counsellors, he decided that the first year should be the year of Muhammad's arrival at Medina (known as Yathrib, before Muhammad's arrival). [29] Uthman ibn Affan then suggested that the months begin with Muharram, in line with the established custom of the Arabs at that time. The years of the Islamic calendar thus began with the month of Muharram in the year of Muhammad's arrival at the city of Medina, even though the actual emigration took place in Safar and Rabi' I of the intercalated calendar, two months before the commencement of Muharram in the new fixed calendar. [2] Because of the Hijra, the calendar was named the Hijri calendar.

    F A Shamsi (1984) postulated that the Arabic calendar was never intercalated. According to him, the first day of the first month of the new fixed Islamic calendar (1 Muharram AH 1) was no different from what was observed at the time. The day the Prophet moved from Quba' to Medina was originally 26 Rabi' I on the pre-Islamic calendar. [30] 1 Muharram of the new fixed calendar corresponded to Friday, 16 July 622 CE, the equivalent civil tabular date (same daylight period) in the Julian calendar. [31] [32] The Islamic day began at the preceding sunset on the evening of 15 July. This Julian date (16 July) was determined by medieval Muslim astronomers by projecting back in time their own tabular Islamic calendar, which had alternating 30- and 29-day months in each lunar year plus eleven leap days every 30 years. For example, al-Biruni mentioned this Julian date in the year 1000 CE. [33] Although not used by either medieval Muslim astronomers or modern scholars to determine the Islamic epoch, the thin crescent moon would have also first become visible (assuming clouds did not obscure it) shortly after the preceding sunset on the evening of 15 July, 1.5 days after the associated dark moon (astronomical new moon) on the morning of 14 July. [34]

    Though Cook and Crone in Hagarism: The Making of the Islamic World cite a coin from AH 17, the first surviving attested use of a Hijri calendar date alongside a date in another calendar (Coptic) is on a papyrus from Egypt in AH 22, PERF 558.

    Due to the Islamic calendar's reliance on certain variable methods of observation to determine its month-start-dates, these dates sometimes vary slightly from the month-start-dates of the astronomical lunar calendar, which are based directly on astronomical calculations. Still, the Islamic calendar seldom varies by more than three days from the astronomical-lunar-calendar system, and roughly approximates it. Both the Islamic calendar and the astronomical-lunar-calendar take no account of the solar year in their calculations, and thus both of these strictly lunar based calendar systems have no ability to reckon the timing of the four seasons of the year.

    In the astronomical-lunar-calendar system, a year of 12 lunar months is 354.37 days long. In this calendar system, lunar months begin precisely at the time of the monthly "conjunction", when the Moon is located most directly between the Earth and the Sun. The month is defined as the average duration of a revolution of the Moon around the Earth (29.53 days). By convention, months of 30 days and 29 days succeed each other, adding up over two successive months to 59 full days. This leaves only a small monthly variation of 44 minutes to account for, which adds up to a total of 24 hours (i.e., the equivalent of one full day) in 2.73 years. To settle accounts, it is sufficient to add one day every three years to the lunar calendar, in the same way that one adds one day to the Gregorian calendar every four years. [35] The technical details of the adjustment are described in Tabular Islamic calendar.

    The Islamic calendar, however, is based on a different set of conventions being used for the determination of the month-start-dates. [36] Each month still has either 29 or 30 days, but due to the variable method of observations employed, there is usually no discernible order in the sequencing of either 29 or 30 day month lengths. Traditionally, the first day of each month is the day (beginning at sunset) of the first sighting of the hilal (crescent moon) shortly after sunset. If the hilal is not observed immediately after the 29th day of a month (either because clouds block its view or because the western sky is still too bright when the moon sets), then the day that begins at that sunset is the 30th. Such a sighting has to be made by one or more trustworthy men testifying before a committee of Muslim leaders. Determining the most likely day that the hilal could be observed was a motivation for Muslim interest in astronomy, which put Islam in the forefront of that science for many centuries. Still, due to the fact that both lunar reckoning systems are ultimately based on the lunar cycle itself, both systems still do roughly correspond to one another, never being more than three days out of synchronisation with one another.

    This traditional practice for the determination of the start-date of the month is still followed in the overwhelming majority of Muslim countries. Each Islamic state proceeds with its own monthly observation of the new moon (or, failing that, awaits the completion of 30 days) before declaring the beginning of a new month on its territory. But, the lunar crescent becomes visible only some 17 hours after the conjunction, and only subject to the existence of a number of favourable conditions relative to weather, time, geographic location, as well as various astronomical parameters. [37] Given the fact that the moon sets progressively later than the sun as one goes west, with a corresponding increase in its "age" since conjunction, Western Muslim countries may, under favorable conditions, observe the new moon one day earlier than eastern Muslim countries. Due to the interplay of all these factors, the beginning of each month differs from one Muslim country to another, during the 48 hour period following the conjunction. The information provided by the calendar in any country does not extend beyond the current month.

    A number of Muslim countries try to overcome some of these difficulties by applying different astronomy-related rules to determine the beginning of months. Thus, Malaysia, Indonesia, and a few others begin each month at sunset on the first day that the moon sets after the sun (moonset after sunset). In Egypt, the month begins at sunset on the first day that the moon sets at least five minutes after the sun. A detailed analysis of the available data shows, however, that there are major discrepancies between what countries say they do on this subject, and what they actually do. In some instances, what a country says it does is impossible. [38] [39]

    Due to the somewhat variable nature of the Islamic calendar, in most Muslim countries, the Islamic calendar is used primarily for religious purposes, while the Solar-based Gregorian calendar is still used primarily for matters of commerce and agriculture.

    If the Islamic calendar were prepared using astronomical calculations, Muslims throughout the Muslim world could use it to meet all their needs, the way they use the Gregorian calendar today. But, there are divergent views on whether it is licit to do so. [40]

    A majority of theologians oppose the use of calculations (beyond the constraint that each month must be not less than 29 nor more than 30 days) on the grounds that the latter would not conform with Muhammad's recommendation to observe the new moon of Ramadan and Shawal in order to determine the beginning of these months. [41] [42] [c]

    However, some jurists see no contradiction between Muhammad's teachings and the use of calculations to determine the beginnings of lunar months. [43] They consider that Muhammad's recommendation was adapted to the culture of the times, and should not be confused with the acts of worship. [44] [45] [46]

    Thus the jurists Ahmad Muhammad Shakir and Yusuf al-Qaradawi both endorsed the use of calculations to determine the beginning of all months of the Islamic calendar, in 1939 and 2004 respectively. [47] [48] So did the Fiqh Council of North America (FCNA) in 2006 [49] [50] and the European Council for Fatwa and Research (ECFR) in 2007. [51] [52]

    The major Muslim associations of France also announced in 2012 that they would henceforth use a calendar based on astronomical calculations, taking into account the criteria of the possibility of crescent sighting in any place on Earth. [53] [54] But, shortly after the official adoption of this rule by the French Council of the Muslim Faith (CFCM) in 2013, the new leadership of the association decided, on the eve of Ramadan 2013, to follow the Saudi announcement rather than to apply the rule just adopted. This resulted in a division of the Muslim community of France, with some members following the new rule, and others following the Saudi announcement.

    Isma'ili-Taiyebi Bohras having the institution of da'i al-mutlaq follow the tabular Islamic calendar (see section below) prepared on the basis of astronomical calculations from the days of Fatimid imams.

    Islamic calendar of Turkey

    Turkish Muslims use an Islamic calendar which is calculated several years in advance by the Turkish Presidency of Religious Affairs (Diyanet İşleri Başkanlığı). From 1 Muharrem 1400 AH (21 November 1979) until 29 Zilhicce 1435 (24 October 2014) the computed Turkish lunar calendar was based on the following rule: "The lunar month is assumed to begin on the evening when, within some region of the terrestrial globe, the computed centre of the lunar crescent at local sunset is more than 5° above the local horizon and (geocentrically) more than 8° from the Sun." In the current rule the (computed) lunar crescent has to be above the local horizon of Ankara at sunset. [55]

    Saudi Arabia's Umm al-Qura calendar

    Saudi Arabia uses the sighting method to determine the beginning of each month of the Hijri calendar. Since AH 1419 (1998/99), several official hilal sighting committees have been set up by the government to determine the first visual sighting of the lunar crescent at the beginning of each lunar month. Nevertheless, the religious authorities also allow the testimony of less experienced observers and thus often announce the sighting of the lunar crescent on a date when none of the official committees could see it.

    The country also uses the Umm al-Qura calendar, based on astronomical calculations, but this is restricted to administrative purposes. The parameters used in the establishment of this calendar underwent significant changes during the decade to AH 1423. [56] [57]

    Before AH 1420 (before 18 April 1999), if the moon's age at sunset in Riyadh was at least 12 hours, then the day ending at that sunset was the first day of the month. This often caused the Saudis to celebrate holy days one or even two days before other predominantly Muslim countries, including the dates for the Hajj, which can only be dated using Saudi dates because it is performed in Mecca.

    For AH 1420–22, if moonset occurred after sunset at Mecca, then the day beginning at that sunset was the first day of a Saudi month, essentially the same rule used by Malaysia, Indonesia, and others (except for the location from which the hilal was observed).

    Since the beginning of AH 1423 (16 March 2002), the rule has been clarified a little by requiring the geocentric conjunction of the sun and moon to occur before sunset, in addition to requiring moonset to occur after sunset at Mecca. This ensures that the moon has moved past the sun by sunset, even though the sky may still be too bright immediately before moonset to actually see the crescent.

    In 2007, the Islamic Society of North America, the Fiqh Council of North America and the European Council for Fatwa and Research announced that they will henceforth use a calendar based on calculations using the same parameters as the Umm al-Qura calendar to determine (well in advance) the beginning of all lunar months (and therefore the days associated with all religious observances). This was intended as a first step on the way to unify, at some future time, Muslims' calendars throughout the world. [58]

    Since AH 1438 (1 October 2016), Saudi Arabia adopted the Gregorian calendar for payment of the monthly salaries of government employees (as a cost cutting measure), [59] while retaining the Islamic calendar for religious purposes. [60]

    The Solar Hijri calendar is a solar calendar used in Iran and Afghanistan which counts its years from the Hijra or migration of Muhammad from Mecca to Medina in 622 CE. [61]

    The Tabular Islamic calendar is a rule-based variation of the Islamic calendar, in which months are worked out by arithmetic rules rather than by observation or astronomical calculation. It has a 30-year cycle with 11 leap years of 355 days and 19 years of 354 days. In the long term, it is accurate to one day in about 2,500 solar years or 2,570 lunar years. It also deviates up to about one or two days in the short term.

    Kuwaiti algorithm

    Microsoft uses the "Kuwaiti algorithm", a variant of the tabular Islamic calendar, [62] to convert Gregorian dates to the Islamic ones. Microsoft claimed that the variant is based on a statistical analysis of historical data from Kuwait, however it matches a known tabular calendar.

    Important dates in the Islamic (Hijri) year are:

    • 1 Muharram: SunniIslamic New Year.
    • 10 Muharram: Day of Ashura. For both Shias and Sunnis, the martyrdom of Husayn ibn Ali, the grandson of Muhammad, and his followers. For Sunnis, the crossing of the Red Sea by Moses occurred on this day.
    • 12 Rabi al-Awwal: Mawlid or Birth of the Prophet for Sunnis.
    • 17 Rabi al-Awwal: Mawlid for Shias.
    • 27 Rajab: Isra and Mi'raj for the majority of Muslims.
    • 15 Sha'ban: Mid-Sha'ban, or Night of Forgiveness. For Shiites, also the birthday of Muhammad al-Mahdi, the Twelfth Imam.
    • 1 Ramadan: ShiaIslamic New Year. The first day of fasting.
    • 27 Ramadan: Nuzul al-Qur'an. The most probable day Muhammad received the first verses of the Quran. (17 Ramadan in Indonesia and Malaysia)
    • Last third of Ramadan which includes Laylat al-Qadr.
    • 1 Shawwal: Eid ul-Fitr.
    • 8–13 Dhu al-Hijjah: The Hajj pilgrimage to Mecca.
    • 9 Dhu al-Hijjah: Day of Arafa.
    • 10 Dhu al-Hijjah: Eid al-Adha.

    Days considered important predominantly for Shia Muslims:

    • 9 Rabi' al-Awwal: Eid-e-Shuja' (Mukhtar al-Thaqafi avenges the events of Ashura).
    • 13 Rajab: Birthday of Ali ibn Abi Talib
    • 3 Sha'ban: Birthday of Husayn ibn Ali.
    • 21 Ramadan: Martyrdom of Ali ibn Abi Talib.

    Conversions may be made by using the Tabular Islamic calendar, or, for greatest accuracy (one day in 15,186 years), via the Jewish calendar. Theoretically, the days of the months correspond in both calendars if the displacements which are a feature of the Jewish system are ignored. The table below gives, for nineteen years, the Muslim month which corresponds to the first Jewish month.

    This table may be extended since every nineteen years the Muslim month number increases by seven. When it goes above twelve, subtract twelve and add one to the year AH. From 412 CE to 632 CE inclusive the month number is 1 and the calculation gives the month correct to a month or so. 622 CE corresponds to BH 1 and AH 1. For earlier years, year BH = (623 or 622) – year CE).

    An example calculation: What is the civil date and year AH of the first day of the first month in the year 20875 CE?

    We first find the Muslim month number corresponding to the first month of the Jewish year which begins in 20874 CE. Dividing 20874 by 19 gives quotient 1098 and remainder 12. Dividing 2026 by 19 gives quotient 106 and remainder 12. 2026 is chosen because it gives the same remainder on division by 19 as 20874. The two years are therefore (1098–106)=992×19 years apart. The Muslim month number corresponding to the first Jewish month is therefore 992×7=6944 higher than in 2026. To convert into years and months divide by twelve – 6944/12=578 years and 8 months. Adding, we get 1447y 10m + 20874y – 2026y + 578y 8m = 20874y 6m. Therefore, the first month of the Jewish year beginning in 20874 CE corresponds to the sixth month of the Muslim year AH 20874. The worked example in Conversion between Jewish and civil dates, shows that the civil date of the first day of this month (ignoring the displacements) is Friday, 14 June. The year AH 20875 will therefore begin seven months later, on the first day of the eighth Jewish month, which the worked example shows to be 7 January, 20875 CE (again ignoring the displacements). The date given by this method, being calculated, may differ by a day from the actual date, which is determined by observation.

    A reading of the section which follows will show that the year AH 20875 is wholly contained within the year 20875 CE, also that in the Gregorian calendar this correspondence will occur one year earlier. The reason for the discrepancy is that the Gregorian year (like the Julian, though less so) is slightly too long, so the Gregorian date for a given AH date will be earlier and the Muslim calendar catches up sooner.

    Arithmetical coincidences

    An Islamic year, as reckoned in the tabular Islamic calendar, will be entirely within a Gregorian year of the same number in the year 20874, [63] after which year the number of the Islamic year will always be greater than the number of the concurrent Gregorian year. The Islamic calendar year of 1429 occurred entirely within the Gregorian calendar year of 2008. The first year of the fixed calendar (calculated back) began on 19 July 622 Gregorian (counted back). [ citation needed ] So 1401 Gregorian years are about 1444 Hegira years. Therefore the Hegira year rotates through the Gregorian 43 times in 1401 Gregorian years, or about once in 32.6 Gregorian years. By definition this period must contain exactly one more Hegira year (33.6). The 43 rotations take place in 1444 Hegira years, and 1444/43=33.6. More Hegira years wholly contained in the Gregorian year are listed here:

    Islamic year within Gregorian year
    Islamic Civil Difference
    1026 1617 591
    1060 1650 590
    1093 1682 589
    1127 1715 588
    1161 1748 587
    1194 1780 586
    1228 1813 585
    1261 1845 584
    1295 1878 583
    1329 1911 582
    1362 1943 581
    1396 1976 580
    1429 2008 579
    1463 2041 578
    1496 2073 577
    1530 2106 576
    1564 2139 575
    1597 2171 574
    1631 2204 573
    1664 2236 572
    1698 2269 571
    1732 2302 570
    1765 2334 569
    1799 2367 568
    1832 2399 567
    1866 2432 566
    1899 2464 565
    1933 2497 564
    1967 2530 563
    2000 2562 562

    The Islamic calendar is now used primarily for religious purposes, and for official dating of public events and documents in Muslim countries. Because of its nature as a purely lunar calendar, it cannot be used for agricultural purposes and historically Islamic communities have used other calendars for this purpose: the Egyptian calendar was formerly widespread in Islamic countries, and the Iranian calendar and the 1789 Ottoman calendar (a modified Julian calendar) were also used for agriculture in their countries. [ citation needed ] In the Levant and Iraq the Aramaic names of the Babylonian calendar are still used for all secular matters. [ citation needed ] In the Maghreb, Berber farmers in the countryside still use the Julian calendar for agrarian purposes. [64] These local solar calendars have receded in importance with the near-universal adoption of the Gregorian calendar for civil purposes. [ citation needed ] Saudi Arabia uses the lunar Islamic calendar. [65] In Indonesia, the Javanese calendar combines elements of the Islamic and pre-Islamic Saka calendars. [ citation needed ]

    British author Nicholas Hagger writes that after seizing control of Libya, Muammar Gaddafi "declared" on 1 December 1978 "that the Muslim calendar should start with the death of the prophet Mohammed in 632 rather than the hijra (Mohammed's 'emigration' from Mecca to Medina) in 622". This put the country ten solar years behind the standard Muslim calendar. [66] However, according to the 2006 Encyclopedia of the Developing World, "More confusing still is Qaddafi's unique Libyan calendar, which counts the years from the Prophet's birth, or sometimes from his death. The months July and August, named after Julius and Augustus Caesar, are now Nasser and Hannibal respectively." [67] Reflecting on a 2001 visit to the country, American reporter Neil MacFarquhar observed, "Life in Libya was so unpredictable that people weren't even sure what year it was. The year of my visit was officially 1369. But just two years earlier Libyans had been living through 1429. No one could quite name for me the day the count changed, especially since both remained in play. . Event organizers threw up their hands and put the Western year in parentheses somewhere in their announcements." [68]

    Public holidays in South Africa

    Since 1994 election days have been declared ad hoc public holidays:

    • National and provincial government elections – 2 June 1999 [9]
    • National and provincial government elections – 14 April 2004 [10]
    • Local government elections – 1 March 2006 [11]
    • National and provincial government elections – 22 April 2009 [12]
    • Local government elections – 18 May 2011 [13]
    • National and provincial government elections – 7 May 2014 [14]
    • Local government elections – 3 August 2016 [15]
    • National and provincial government elections – 8 May 2019 [16]

    31 December 1999 and 2 January 2000 were declared public holidays to accommodate the Y2K changeover, and 3 January 2000 was automatically a public holiday because the previous holiday was a Sunday. [17]

    2 May 2008 was declared a public holiday when Human Rights Day and Good Friday coincided on 21 March 2008. [18]

    27 December 2011 was declared a holiday by deputy president Kgalema Motlanthe as Christmas Day fell on a Sunday which generally makes the following Monday a public holiday. However, the following Monday, 26 December 2011, was the Day of Goodwill and therefore decreased the number of paid public holidays for the year. Initially this day was not to be declared a public holiday [19] but in mid-December the decision was changed. [20]

    27 December 2016 was declared a holiday by president Jacob Zuma following a request by the Federation of Unions of South Africa (FEDUSA). [21] The request by FEDUSA was motivated by the fact this year, workers in the country will only have 11 public holidays instead of 12 due to fact that 25 December (Christmas Day) falls on a Sunday. The declaration of 27 December as a public holiday, the Presidency said, will ensure that workers are not unduly disadvantaged because of this unusual event and are still entitled to their 12 paid public holidays. [22]

    The Christian holidays of Christmas Day and Good Friday remained in secular post-apartheid South Africa's calendar of public holidays. The Commission for the Promotion and Protection of the Rights of Cultural, Religious and Linguistic Communities (CRL Rights Commission), a chapter nine institution established in 2004, held countrywide consultative public hearings in June and July 2012 to assess the need for a review of public holidays following the receipt of complaints from minority groups about unfair discrimination. The CRL Rights Commission stated that they would submit their recommendations to the Department of Home Affairs, the Department of Labour, various Portfolio Committees and the Office of the Presidency by October 2012. [23] [24] On 10 November 2012 the Minister of Home Affairs Naledi Pandor told Christian protesters objecting to the removal of Christian public holidays that she had not received any enquiries from the CRL Rights Commission yet. [25] The CRL Rights Commission published its recommendations on 17 April 2013, including the scrapping of some existing public holidays to free up days for some non-Christian religious public holidays. [26] [27] On 18 January 2015 the South African Law Reform Commission published a discussion document on legislation administered by the Department of Home Affairs in which it suggested "that either these holidays be reviewed or that equal weight be given to holidays of other faiths". [28] [29] [30]

    South Africa's present calendar of public holidays was introduced in 1994. During the period between Union in 1910, and the establishment of the present republic in 1994, the following were the official public holidays:

    Date Variables in Web Intelligence

    Here in SAP BusinessObjects BI Web Intelligence Space, it is noted that many of us are searching/asking questions on Date/Time Dimensions.

    I am submitting all necessary formulas for the same. Hope it is useful to all.

    We need daily,monthly,quarterly & yearly date variables.

    Before making any date variable please make a variable which holds current date.

    Reason to make another variable for Current Date is, for validation purpose you can change date manually and then check it whether all other date variables are working properly or not.

    (1) Current Date = CurrentDate()

    (2.1) Current Year =If(Month([Current Date]) InList(“January”)) Then(FormatNumber(Year([Current Date])-1”###”)) Else (FormatNumber(Year([Current Date])”###”))

    if you want to use Current Year for YTD variable then please use 2.2 formula or use 2.1

    (2.2) Current Year for YTD=If(Month([Current Date]) InList(“January””February””March”)) Then(FormatNumber(Year([Current Date])-1”###”)) Else (FormatNumber(Year([Current Date])”###”))

    (3) Current Fiscal Year =FormatNumber([Year]”####”) Where ([Year]=Year([Current Date]) And [Month] InList (123) And MonthNumberOfYear([Current Date]) InList (1234) Or [Year]=Year([Current Date])-1 And [Month] InList (456789101112) And MonthNumberOfYear([Current Date]) InList (1234)

    Or [Year]= Year([Current Date])And MonthNumberOfYear([Current Date]) InList (56789101112))

    where [Year]= Year of Your Transaction Date, and it is for Indian Fiscal Year

    (4.1) Last Year =If(Month([Current Date]) InList(“January”)) Then(FormatNumber(Year([Current Date])-2”###”)) Else (FormatNumber(Year([Current Date])-1”###”))

    if you want to use Current Year for LYTD variable then please use 4.2 formula or use 4.1

    (4.2) Last Year for LYTD =If(Month([Current Date]) InList(“January””February””March”)) Then(FormatNumber(Year([Current Date])-2”###”)) Else (FormatNumber(Year([Current Date])-1”###”))

    (5) Last Fiscal Year =FormatNumber([Year]”####”) Where ([Year]=Year([Current Date])-1 And [Month] InList (123) And MonthNumberOfYear([Current Date]) InList (1234) Or [Year]=Year([Current Date])-2 And [Month] InList (456789101112) And MonthNumberOfYear([Current Date]) InList (1234) Or [Year]= Year([Current Date])-1 And MonthNumberOfYear([Current Date]) InList (56789101112))

    where [Year]= Year of Your Transaction Date, and it is for Indian Fiscal Year

    (6) CYCM=Concatenation(Left(Month(RelativeDate([Current Date]-DayNumberOfMonth([Current Date])))3)Concatenation(“-“[Current Year]))

    *Current Year Completed Month

    (7) CYLM=Concatenation((Concatenation(Left(Month(RelativeDate(RelativeDate([Current Date]-DayNumberOfMonth([Current Date]))-DayNumberOfMonth(RelativeDate([Current Date]-DayNumberOfMonth([Current Date])))))3)”-“))If(MonthNumberOfYear([Current Date])=1 Or MonthNumberOfYear([Current Date])=2) Then (Right(FormatNumber(Year([Current Date])-1”####”)4)) Else (Right(FormatNumber(Year([Current Date])”####”)4)))

    *Current Year Last Month

    (8) LYCM=Concatenation(Left(Month(RelativeDate([Current Date]-DayNumberOfMonth([Current Date])))3)Concatenation(“-“[Last Year]))

    *Last Year Completed Month

    (9) YTM=Concatenation(If(MonthNumberOfYear([Current Date]) Between (512)) Then (Concatenation((Concatenation(“Apr””-“))Right(FormatNumber((Year([Current Date]))”####”)4))) Else(Concatenation(Concatenation(“Apr””-“)Right(FormatNumber((Year([Current Date])-1)”####”)4)))If(MonthNumberOfYear([Current Date])=5)Then(“”)Else(Concatenation(” to “(Concatenation((Concatenation(Left(Month(RelativeDate([Current Date]-DayNumberOfMonth([Current Date])))3)”-“))(If(MonthNumberOfYear([Current Date])=1) Then(Right(FormatNumber(Year([Current Date])-1”####”)4))Else(Right(FormatNumber(Year([Current Date])”####”)4))))))))

    *Year Till Month

    (10) LYTM=Concatenation(If(MonthNumberOfYear([Current Date]) Between (512)) Then (Concatenation((Concatenation(“Apr””-“))Right(FormatNumber((Year([Current Date])-1)”####”)4))) Else(Concatenation(Concatenation(“Apr””-“)Right(FormatNumber((Year([Current Date])-2)”####”)4)))If(MonthNumberOfYear([Current Date])=5)Then(“”)Else(Concatenation(” to “(Concatenation((Concatenation(Left(Month(RelativeDate([Current Date]-DayNumberOfMonth([Current Date])))3)”-“))(If(MonthNumberOfYear([Current Date])=1) Then(Right(FormatNumber(Year([Current Date])-2”####”)4))Else(Right(FormatNumber(Year([Current Date])-1”####”)4))))))))

    *Last Year Till Month

    (11) MTD=Concatenation(Left(FormatDate([Current Date]”dd/MM/yyyy”)2) Concatenation(“-“Concatenation(Concatenation(Left(Month([Current Date])3)”-“)Right(FormatNumber(Year(CurrentDate())”####”)4))))

    *Month Till Date

    (12) YTD=Concatenation(Concatenation(“Apr-“[Current Year for YTD])If(MonthNumberOfYear([Current Date])=4)Then(“”) Else(Concatenation(” to “Concatenation(Concatenation(Left(Month([Current Date])3)”-“)Right(FormatNumber(Year([Current Date])”####”)4)))))

    * Year Till Date

    =If(Quarter(RelativeDate([Current Date]-DayNumberOfMonth([Current Date])))=1) Then(Concatenation(Concatenation(“Q4:Jan-“[Current Year])Concatenation(” to Mar-“[Current Year]))) ElseIf(Quarter(RelativeDate([Current Date]-DayNumberOfMonth([Current Date])))=2) Then(Concatenation(Concatenation(“Q1:Apr-“[Current Year])Concatenation(“to Jun-“[Current Year]))) ElseIf(Quarter(RelativeDate([Current Date]-DayNumberOfMonth([Current Date])))=3) Then(Concatenation(Concatenation(“Q2:Jul-“[Current Year])Concatenation(“to Sep-“[Current Year]))) ElseIf(Quarter(RelativeDate([Current Date]-DayNumberOfMonth([Current Date])))=4) Then(Concatenation(Concatenation(“Q3:Oct-“[Current Year])Concatenation(“to Dec-“[Current Year])))

    *based on Indian Fiscal Year

    =If(Quarter(RelativeDate([Current Date]-DayNumberOfMonth([Current Date])))=1)

    Then(Concatenation(Concatenation(“Q3:Oct-“[Last Year])Concatenation(” to Dec-“[Last Year])))

    ElseIf(Quarter(RelativeDate([Current Date]-DayNumberOfMonth([Current Date])))=2)

    Then(Concatenation(Concatenation(“Q4:Jan-“[Current Year])Concatenation(” to Mar-“[Current Year])))

    ElseIf(Quarter(RelativeDate([Current Date]-DayNumberOfMonth([Current Date])))=3)

    Then(Concatenation(Concatenation(“Q1:Apr-“[Current Year])Concatenation(“to Jun-“[Current Year])))

    *based on Indian Fiscal Year

    =If(Quarter(RelativeDate([Current Date]-DayNumberOfMonth([Current Date])))=1)

    Then(Concatenation(Concatenation(“Q2:Jul-“[Last Year])Concatenation(” to Sep-“[Last Year])))

    ElseIf(Quarter(RelativeDate([Current Date]-DayNumberOfMonth([Current Date])))=2)

    Then(Concatenation(Concatenation(“Q3:Oct-“[Last Year])Concatenation(” to Dec-“[Last Year])))

    ElseIf(Quarter(RelativeDate([Current Date]-DayNumberOfMonth([Current Date])))=3)

    Then(Concatenation(Concatenation(“Q4:Jan-“[Current Year])Concatenation(“to Mar-“[Current Year])))

    ElseIf(Quarter(RelativeDate([Current Date]-DayNumberOfMonth([Current Date])))=4)

    Then(Concatenation(Concatenation(“Q1:Apr-“[Current Year])Concatenation(“to Jun-“[Current Year])))

    (16) Last Year Current Quarter

    =If(Quarter(RelativeDate([Current Date]-DayNumberOfMonth([Current Date])))=1) Then(Concatenation(Concatenation(“Q4:Jan-“[Last Year])Concatenation(” to Mar-“[Last Year])))

    ElseIf(Quarter(RelativeDate([Current Date]-DayNumberOfMonth([Current Date])))=2)

    Then(Concatenation(Concatenation(“Q1:Apr-“[Last Year])Concatenation(“to Jun-“[Last Year])))

    ElseIf(Quarter(RelativeDate([Current Date]-DayNumberOfMonth([Current Date])))=3)

    Then(Concatenation(Concatenation(“Q2:Jul-“[Last Year])Concatenation(“to Sep-“[Last Year])))

    ElseIf(Quarter(RelativeDate([Current Date]-DayNumberOfMonth([Current Date])))=4)

    Then(Concatenation(Concatenation(“Q3:Oct-“[Last Year])Concatenation(“to Dec-“[Last Year])))

    (17) Last Day(date) of Previous Month

    =FormatDate(LastDayOfMonth(RelativeDate([Current Date]-DayNumberOfMonth([Current Date])))”dd-MMM-yyyy”)

    Output: If Current Date=27/10/2015 then output is 30-SEP-2015

    (18) Previous Day/Yesterday (Day-1)

    Output: If Current Date=27/10/2015 then output is 26/10/2015

    =FormatDate(LastDayOfMonth(RelativeDate([Current Date]-DayNumberOfMonth([Current Date])))”MM”)

    Output: If Current Date=27/10/2015 then output is 09

    Have you ever tried to pay for things with a check and the transaction was declined even though you had money in the bank? It might be because a consumer reporting agency gave the retailer negative information about your credit history – including your checking account history – or indicated that you could be a bad credit risk for other reasons.

    White Christmas?

    A rare Christmas day snowfall brought accumulations of about 1/2" to parts of the Birmingham area in 2010, although no accumulation was officially reported at the Birmingham-Shuttlesworth International Airport.

    Prior to that, no measurable snow accumulation had ever occurred on December 24 or 25 in Birmingham. There were some flurries and light dusting in 1985, and even lighter flurries in 1961, 1963, 1966, 1980, 1989, 1990, 1993 and 1995. The nearest major snowfall was the one on December 22, 1929 which left some snow still on the ground on Christmas Eve. Christmas Day's high of 51° F melted the rest of it off.

    How Erstwhile Empire Day Became Commonwealth Day: History, Theme and Significance

    The Commonwealth Day is celebrated on the second Monday in the month of March every year. However, in India another Commonwealth Day is also celebrated on May 24. Also known as the Empire Day, the Commonwealth Day commemorates the formation of the British Empire in India and other colonies of Britain.

    It was not until after the death of Queen Victoria, who passed away on January 22, 1901 that Empire Day was first celebrated. The first Empire Day was celebrated on May 24, 1902 which was the Queen’s birthday. Many schools across the British Empire were celebrating it even before it was officially recognised as an annual event.

    It was only in 1916 that Empire Day was an official annual event. According to Historic UK, a New Zealand school journal from 1910 had mentioned the Empire Day celebration. The journal mentioned how the Union Jack was unfurled to celebrate the occasion.

    During the British colonial period, school children from across the British Empire would salute the union flag and sing patriotic songs like Jerusalem and God Save the Queen. Children were also told inspirational speeches and listened to tales of bravery from across the Empire.

    UK Joins US, EU and Canada in Fresh Sanctions on Belarus Over Detention of Journalist

    Continued to Strengthen Talent Pool by Recruiting 19,230 Graduates in India: Infosys

    The stories included the first British Governor of the Bengal Presidency Robert Clive from India, James Wolfe of British Army who conquered Canada’s Québec region after fighting the French occupiers. Historic UK also mentions that schoolchildren were let out of school early so that they can take part in several marches, maypole dances, concerts, and parties that celebrated the event.

    However, as the British colonies faced decline post World War II. Britain’s relationship with the Commonwealth countries that formed the Empire had also changed, as they began to celebrate their own identity and idea of nationalism. Empire Day was then changed to Commonwealth Day as the British empire fell apart.

    The date of Commonwealth Day was changed to June 10, to match with the official birthday of the present Queen Elizabeth II. However, it was again changed in 1977 to the second Monday in March, when each year The Queen sends a special message to the youth of the Empire or the various countries of the Commonwealth.


    This year the theme for Commonwealth Day is: Delivering a Common Future. The aim of this theme is to highlight how the 54 Commonwealth countries are innovating, connecting and transforming to help achieve essential goals like tackling climate change, promoting good governance, achieving gender equality.

    January 22, 2014 Day 2 of the Sixth Year - History

    Famous Birthdays by Month:

    January 1, 1735- Paul Revere, Revolutionary War.

    January 1, 1752- Betsy Ross, designed first U.S.flag

    January 1, 1895- J. Edgar Hoover, FBI Director

    January 2, 1920- Isaac Asimov, Science Fiction Writer

    January 3, 1892- J.R.R. Tolkien, Author of "Lord of the Rings"

    January 3, 1950- Victoria Principal, Actress

    January 3, 1956- Mel Gibson, actor, director

    January 4, 1643 - Isaac Newton, Astronomer, Physicist, Mathematician

    January 4, 1937- Dyan Cannon, Actress

    January 5, 1946- Diane Keaton, Actress

    January 6, 1412- Joan of Arc

    January 7, 1800- Millard Filmore, 13th President, (1850-1853)

    January 7, 1948- Kenny Loggins, Singer/Songwriter

    January 7, Katie Couric, Today Show host

    January 7, 1964- Nicolas Cage, Oscar winning Actor

    January 8, 1889 - Edward Elijah Perkins, creator of Kool-Aid. See National Kool-Aid Day

    January 8, 1926- Soupy Sales, TV Actor

    January 8, 1935- Elvis Presley, King of Rock 'n Roll

    January 8, 1942 - Stephen Hawking, world renowned physicist and author.

    January 9, 1913 - Richard M. Nixon, 37th President (1969-1974)

    January 9, 1935- Bob Denver, TV Actor "Gilligan"

    January 9, 1951- Crystal Gayle, Country Singer

    January 9, 1967- Dave Matthews, singer, band leader, song writer - Dave Matthews Band

    January 10, 1945- Rod Stewart, rock singer

    January 10, 1949- Heavyweight boxing champion, and creator of the "George Foreman Grill"

    January 11, 1952- Ben Crenshaw, golfing great

    January 12, 1944- Joe Frazier, heavyweight boxing champion

    January 12, 1951- Rush Limbaugh, Ultra-conservative radio talk show host

    January 12, 1954- Howard Stern, radio and TV "shock jock"

    January 12, 1955- Kirstie Alley, TV cctress

    January 12, 1964 - Jeff Bezos, founder and CEO of Amazon.com

    January 13, 1919- Robert Stack, Actor"Elliot Ness" on Tv show "Untouchables"

    January 13, 1961- Julia Louis-Dreyfus, comedy actress "Elaine" on the "Seinfeld Sow"

    January 13, 1966 - Patrick Dempsey, "McDreamy" on television drama "Grey's Anatomy".

    January 14, 1741- Benedict Arnold, traitor in American Revolutionary War.

    January 14, 1919- Andy Rooney, author and commentator on "60 Minutes"

    January 14, 1941- Faye Dunaway, Actress

    January 14, 1968 - LL Cool J, born James Todd Smith. singer, actor television series NCIS Los Angeles.

    January 15, 1906 Aristotle Onassis, Greek Shipping tycoon, married Jackie Bouvier-Kennedy

    January 15, 1913- Lloyd Bridges, Actor, TV series "Sea Hunt"

    January 15th, 1929- Martin Luther King Jr., Civil Rights Activist

    January 15, 1951- Charo, Singer, dancer

    January 15, 1979 - Drew Brees, NFL New Orleans Saints quarterback.

    January 16, 1853- Andre Michelin, inflatable auto tire inventor

    January 16, 1909- Ethel Merman, Singer

    January 16, 1935- A.J. Foyt, race car driver

    January 17, 1706- Benjamin Franklin, inventor, statesman, writer

    January 17, 1899- Al Capone, notorious 1920's gangster

    January 17, 1922 - Betty White, actress, television series "Mary Tyler Moore Show" and "The Golden Girls".

    January 17, 1928- Vidal Sassoon, British hair stylist, fashion designer

    January 17, 1934- Shari Lewis, TV children's puppeteer

    January 17, 1942- Mohammad Ali, formerly "Casius Clay", arguably the best ever heavyweight boxing champion

    January 17, 1962 - Jim Carey, actor,comedian.

    January 18, 1779- Peter Roget, author of Roget's Thesaurus

    January 18, 1782- Daniel Webster, politician and speaker

    January 18, 1882- A.A. Milne, author of Childrens' storybooks. Created Winnie the Pooh and friends.

    January 18, 1892- Oliver Hardy, "Ollie" in Stan and Laurel comedies

    January 18, 1904- Cary Grant, Actor

    January 18, 1913- Danny Kaye, comic actor

    January 18, 1955- Kevin Costner, Actor

    January 19, 1807- Robert E. Lee, Civil War Confederate Army General

    January 19, 1809- Edgar Allen Poe, Author and Poet, most notably macabre and horror stories

    January 19, 1943- Janis Joplin, 1960's rock singer

    January 19, 1946- Dolly Parton, buxom country western singer and actress

    January 19, 1947 - Paula Deen, chef, cookbook author

    January 20, 1896- George Burns, comedian

    January 20, 1920 Deforrest Kelley, Doctor McCoy on Tv's original "Star Trek"

    January 20,1930- Edwin "Buzz Aldrin, Astronaut, walked on the moon

    January 21, 1738- Ethan Allen, Revolutionary War Hero

    January 21, 1824- Thomas "Stonewall" Jackson, Confederate Army general

    January 21,1924- Telley Savalas, Tv's "Kojak"

    January 21, 1925- Benny Hill, British comedian

    January 21, 1940 - Jack Niclaus, "The Golden Bear", one of the greatest golfers of all time

    January 21, 1976- "Baby Spice" of The Spice Girls

    January 22, 1934- Bill Bixby, the "Incredible Hulk" Star

    January 22, 1949- John Belushi, comedian, actor, SNL and Blues Brothers

    January 23, 1737- John Hancock, politician, first to sign the Declaration of Independence.

    January 24, 1917- Ernest Borgnine, Actor, most notably TV's "McHales' Navy"

    January 24, 1941 - Neil Diamond,Singer, composer

    January 24, 1968- Mary Lou Retton, won gold medal in Gymnastics, at 1984 Olympics

    January 25, 1931- Dean Jones, actor, "The Love Bug"

    January 25, 1981- Alicia Keys, singer, Grammy winner

    January 26, 1880- Douglas MaCarthur, WWII General, Quote: "I shall return!"

    January 26, 1925- Paul Newman, Oscar winning actor

    January 26, 1955- Eddie Van Halen, singer, rock band

    January 26, 1958- Ellen DeGeneres, actress, talk show hostess

    January 26, 1961- Wayne Gretzky, Hockey's "Great One"

    January 27, 1756- Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, one of the greatest musical composers ever

    January 27, 1832- Lewis Carroll, wrote "Alice in Wonderland"

    January 27, 1921- Donna Reed,TV and movie actress

    January 28, 1887- Arthur Rubenstein, classical pianist

    January 28, 1936- Alan Alda, Hawkeye Pierce in TV series "M*A*S*H"

    January 29, 1843 - William McKinley, 25th U.S. President(1897-1901), assassinated while in office.

    January 29, 1880- W. C. Fields, comedian, actor

    January 29, 1918- John Forsythe, actor, Charlie's Angels, Dynasty

    January 29, 1945- Tom Selleck, actor, TV series "Magnum P.I., Blue Bloods

    January 29, 1954- Oprah Winfrey, talk show hostess

    January 30, 1882 - Franklin D. Roosevelt, 32nd U.S. President, elected to four terms (1933-1945)

    January 30, 1922- Dick Martin, comedian

    January 30, 1930- Gene Hackman, Oscar winning actor, The French Connection

    January 30, 1937, Boris Spassky, World Chess champion

    January 30, 1951- Phil Collins, singer

    January 31, 1919- Jackie Robinson, first Afro-American to to play in Major League Baseball

    January 31, 1923- Carol Channing, actress, "Hello Dolly"

    January 31, 1937- Suzanne Pleshette, actress

    January 31, 1947- Nolan Ryan, MLB pitcher for 27 years

    January 31, 1981- Justin Timberlake, singer, member of NSYNC, Superbowl Halftime with Janet Jackson

    Ecards We've got you covered with free Ecards for Birthdays and just about any other holiday, occasion, event, or no event at all!

    Holiday Insights , where every day is a holiday, a bizarre or wacky day, an observance, or a special event. Join us in the daily calendar fun each and every day of the year.

    Watch the video: THE BEST UPCOMING MOVIES 2021 New Trailers #6