The birth of the United States of America pivoted on relation to the Thirteen Colonies founded in the 16th and 17th centuries and their respective capitals: New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina and Georgia.
The emancipation of these territories can be divided into two parts. The first is the petitioning period, a non-disruptive moment and in the eyes of the constitutionalist metropolis. They want to make the metropolis understand that taxes and laws that impose necessary products must be withdrawn.
In this context, colonial agents are sent to the metropolis, highlighting Benjamin Franklin, who becomes a key figure for American idiosyncrasy.
Between 1764 and 1765 it was decided to continue with the tax laws: land could not be bought from the settlers, there could be no currency of its own in the colonies and American citizens paid a force of 10,000 British soldiers in the territory.
The metropolis enforces tax laws: everything that colonists export and import must pay a tax in England. The tax burden is increasing and a stamp duty is included. A fee had to be paid in relation to any legal document that was published. This fact generated great discontent and tension.
In this context, a series of colonial agents appear who travel to the metropolis to make explicit that they agreed to pay these taxes in exchange for representation in the English chamber. Parliament's response was the opposite.
The surplus tea and the Boston Tea Party.
Thus we meet one of the key points of the American Revolution: in 1773 there was a surplus of tea, the East India company forced the colonies to buy at a lower price, leaving out colonial entrepreneurs and intermediaries.
Settler Rebellion in Boston Harbor It was born as a consequence of the approval by Great Britain in 1773 of the Tea Act, which, by taxing the importation of different products, benefited the British East India Company.
As a protest they threw the tea into the sea, the citizens of the city rioted and dumped 45 tons of the precious product. The approximate value that was thrown into the waters is valued at about 10,000 pounds. This act is known as the Boston Tea Party. Tas this act punished the city with the prohibition of local and economic elections. Some laws that were considered as «intolerable«.
There are two hegemonic ideological paths. One is the moderate, in the hands of the bourgeoisie and lawyers. This group has economic interests and did not care that the first steps were negotiation, sending people to the metropolis to try to dialogue.
The second is more democratizingHe wanted the people to have representation in the future US Congress. Of these two ways, the first will triumph, it will be a bourgeois revolution. It will not lead to radical social change.
Due to these attacks on the colonies, the end of the petitioning period. Colonial agents, including Benjamin Franklin, traveled the colonies to unite them. Thus, the first continental congress was born in Philadelphia on September 5, 1774. The first opposition to England was formulated and the first units of American patriots were formed to protect the interests of the British colonies settled in the north.
These events generated a point of no return in relation to the Kingdom of Great Britain and the Thirteen Colonies in British North America. In each colony there was a different model of the appropriation of land and the conceptualization of private property.
On the one hand we find the colonies that had a specialized economy, with large plantations of tobacco or cotton (Virginia, Carolina or the southern colonies) and on the other a more diversified economic system (northern populations).
The coastal colonies are dedicated to a productive economy that supplies those in the interior. The southern colonies will unite economically to mediate a tax cut.
On the other hand, each territory had different work models, the autonomous or pioneer who created their own business, the cell related to the home and finally we have the collective work of Puritan communities that came from the continent or the islands fleeing the revolution. English.
There is also a economic model based on cotton and tobacco plantations occupied by populations deprived of liberty.
George Washington and his role in the Independence of the United States.
George Washington, one of the key characters in this entire process, will not command all the troops until 1775 to face the British Crown. He is a multifaceted and meticulous character, he even had a detailed diary of his victories and losses in the cards, which shows his role as a strategist.
It is a key element to contextualize this period, since it wasthe first public figure to play a leading role as the head of the United States. From this year Benjamin Franklin will arrive in Paris as ambassador, where he will meet Voltaire.
Washington is considered one of the founders of the United States With John Adams, Benjamin Franklin, Alexander Hamilton, John Jay, Thomas Jefferson, and James Madison. Under his orders we find in 1776 the Battle of Trenton, in 1777 the one of Princeton takes place, and on October 7, 1777 it will be fought in New York.
It is one of the most important battles, the patriot army will be more and more like an army. In addition, Washington will establish headquarters in Valley Force. In December of the year 1778 in Georgia the Battle of Savannah will take place, the English will lose the port of the city, the siege of the Americans will last a year until it becomes American again. 1779 especially highlights the figure of Lafayette.
The siege of Charlestown, April 10, 1780, will result in American victory. On September 3, 1783, the Treaty of Paris will be signed with Benjamin Franklin. Between 1783 and 1787 we find the period of consolidation of the United States and in 1787 the American constitution will be written. In 1787 he presided over the Philadelphia Convention and in 1789 he won the elections.
On July 4, 1776, the Independence of the United States will be proclaimed. Finally, it should be noted that freedom of the press and illustration are fundamental points in the heart of the American Revolution and in its subsequent constitution.
In 1783 the Peace of Versailles and they recognize the United States up to the Mississippi River, although there will still be some sources of conflict. During these years the debate on the American constitution will begin, theorizing about the good man and how the American man should be.
The peculiarities of the Constitution, and will be left open for further amendments. Between 1787 and 1791 new elements were introduced that were not in the constitution: each state has its rights and regulations, and all those powers that are in the constitution are reserved for each state. In the entire contemporary history of the United States there have been only 27 amendments: the first in 1863 and the last in 1992.
The American revolution and its entire adjacent context makes it clear as illustration and the theoretical principles of progress driven by thinking minds that knew how to unequivocally shape the future of the times.
Men like Francis Bacon, John Locke, David hume or Adam smith. Under the principles of the Enlightenment, an attempt will be made to capture a vision based on science and rationality that will mark the future of the future context and that will also unequivocally mark the foundations of the French Revolution and its advance in the collective subconscious of the progressive population.
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